Comment and Citation Guidelines

Overview

  1. Who should use these guidelines?

    The ICC Forum supports two styles of comments:

    Self-formatted Comments

    Users can format their own comments using the online tools provided by the ICC Forum. Users who are registered and logged in will see, on the pages for each issue, a button labeled: “Write a Comment on This Issue”.

    In the big comment field, users can write or paste their comment written in plain text, limited HTML, or Markdown. URLs and email addresses are automatically converted to clickable links. Bold, italic, <p> tags and other HTML is permitted. Other optional HTML and Markdown formatting enhancements are supported but Self-formatted Comments are filtered to remove potentially harmful javascript and other content.

    After the comment has been moderated, it appears in the formatting style created by the author. The webmaster will sometimes go back and recode a long Self-formatted Comment to make it collapsible or fix significant coding errors.

    The guidelines on this page aren’t designed for the authors of Self-formatted Comments who are free to ignore them.

    Coded Comments

    Coded Comments are authored as Microsoft Word format documents. Coded Comments can contain more complex features than Self-formatted Comments would allow — usually footnotes and outlined headings, but sometimes figures, lists, block quotes, author remarks, tables, embedded videos, and more.

    Coded Comments are sent via email attachment to admin@iccforum.com. During coding (Coding or Coded), the webmaster manually converts the comment into HTML for publication on the ICC Forum.

    Authors of Coded Comments need to follow these guidelines.

    Citations are a picky business. These guidelines are intended to assist a Coded Comment author properly implement the ICC Forum’s citation style. These guidelines are different from how an article would be submitted elsewhere because the formatting task is performed by the webmaster during Coding rather than by the author in the submitted Word document. (In this context, formatting refers to changing fonts to small caps or all uppercase, italicizing titles and signals, abbreviating the names of publishers and dates, and a variety of other changes to the way a citation looks.) This approach helps keep formatting consistent across the ICC Forum.

    Authors submitting legal articles elsewhere may find these Guidelines useful too. Those authors should use the “Results” section in each exemplar for guidance on appropriate citation form. But be warned that citation style is controversal; each publication tends to be highly opinionated. Don’t be surprised to find citation conventions that differ from these. As an exclusively online publication, the ICC Forum has developed its own approach to linking to publishers and source material, so our citation style is particularly different in the URLs and source location sections. Also Coding Markers are solely an ICC Forum innovation and are not used in submissions to other publications.

    Finally, we must admit that the ICC Forum citation style has evolved over time and is not perfectly applied across this site. There are plenty of examples of comments on the ICC Forum whose citations violate the rules set out in these Guidelines.

  2. The ICC Forum is an exclusively online publication. Linking to online versions of source material in citations is important to our readers. Provide an online version of your source – a URL – unless you determine after a diligent search that it’s just not available. You need to do some research to find an online version. If you are a legal academic or professional, you may have access to resources not available to the general public; prefer links to publicly available sources over links to sources behind a paywall. See below.

  3. For general questions of grammar and usage, we consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, online version paywall.

  4. For citation style rules, we use The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 19th edition, online version paywall, except:

    • Don’t format citations in Word: no small-caps fonts or all caps. See below.

    • Don’t abbreviate the names of publications — spell them out. See below.

    • Don’t abbreviate the months of dates in citations — spell them out. See below.

    • Add Coding Markers to assist in communicating specific information about your citation for the Coding process. See below.

  5. A Coding Marker is an all caps word surrounded by brackets in the form: [AAA]

    Examples are: [BLOCKQUOTE] [REMARK] [REF] [PDF] [DOC] [SIGNAL] [LATIN] [LIST] [BOOK] [REPORT] [NOTFOUND] Proper use of these Coding Markers are described in various sections below that can be reached by clicking on the desired Coding Marker above. Coding Markers are always removed during Coding and prior to posting the comment. See below.

  6. When referring to a citation that has previously been cited in full, never repeat a full citation in a subsequent footnote. Always use either id. or supra See below.

  7. Please refer to your comment as a comment not an article or a paper For example:

    In this comment, I make the point that the ICC needs to…

  8. Only registered users can post comments.

    • You need to create an account on the ICC Forum.

    • Recommendation is to use your full name (or last name) as your username. The username serves as your byline next to your posted comment.

    • Use a strong password.

    • Create a profile with a portrait photo.

    • The photo is always displayed next to your comment. So make it a nice one.

  9. Final Coded Comments are submitted via email to admin@iccforum.com as an attached Word document. It’s fine to embed images in the Word document, but they must also be sent as separate attachments, with no lossy compression and at high resolution. Sending the original creation document as well as the output can also be helpful, especially if there are errors that need to be corrected or a higher resolution version is needed. Generally, sending too much is better than not sending enough. Also remember to include your ICC Forum username with your submission.

    Please be sure only to submit your comment when it is in final form. While an exception may be made for a typo or two, once your comment has been Coded, it cannot be revised.

Entire Comment

The “Entire Comment” section of these guidelines refers to items that are applicable to both the Comment Body (main text) and the Citations sections of your comment.

  1. The formatting of citations happens when the comment is Coded, not in your Word document. In some ways, this makes things easier. In your citations, the use of italics is not required; presentation styles that you might otherwise make manually in your Word document are applied during Coding.

    Don’t format citations in Word. Do not use small-caps fonts or all caps. E.g. for the title to a book, use Practice in the International Criminal Court not Practice in the International Criminal Court nor PRACTICE IN THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

    Don’t include a byline, bio, table of contents, or other extraneous material in your comment.

  2. A Coding Marker is a single all-caps word surrounded by square brackets. It is used to communicate a variety of information to the webmaster who codes your comment. Coding Markers are always removed prior to publication. The general form of a Coding Marker is [AAA]

    Here are some Coding Markers; click on them for more detailed information on their individual use.

    Coding Markers that are Used in Both Main Comment and Citations

    • [BLOCKQUOTE] — used in main text area for long quotes and in footnotes for quotes.

    • [REF] — internal references that link to another section of the comment.

    • [LIST] — ordered or unordered lists. Place this Coding Marker at the beginning of the list.

    • [SIGNAL] — just for citations; if a signal (e.g. “Compare e.g”) isn’t in the recognized list, use the Coding Marker to treat the following word or phrase as a signal.

    • [LATIN] — if a foreign language phrase isn’t in the recognized list, use the Coding Marker, followed by the definition within parentheses, to treat the following word or phrase as foreign language. It doesn’t need to literally be in latin for use of the Coding Marker.

    Coding Markers that are Used Just in Citations

    • [REMARK] — used in citations for author remarks about the source or its meaning in the context of the comment.

    • [PDF] or [DOC] — if a URL is a pdf or doc, but does not have a clear extension at the end of the URL of “.pdf” or “.doc” then use these Coding Markers. They’re placed at the end of those URLs preceded with a space.

    • [BOOK] or [REPORT] — put at the beginning of a citation of the appropriate type. In addition to some other differences from other sources, the titles for books and reports are rendered in small caps during Coding.

    • [PAYWALL] — put after the “available at” URL if the online source is only accessible to subscribers or requires other forms of registration or payment. Paywall URLs get a different treatment during Coding.

    • [NOTFOUND] — put after a citation if, after a diligent search, an online source cannot be found.

    Coding Marker exemplars:

  3. If your comment has internal references from one part of the comment to another, then add the [REF] Coding Marker to your text just before each such reference. During Coding, that reference will be changed to a link that anchors to the appropriate target. For example, you'd write:

    In [REF] Part I of my comment, I develop a new paradigm for reparations. Then, in [REF] Part II, I discuss how to determine the appropriate target for reparations. Finally, I [REF] conclude with some very pithy remarks.

    In the foregoing example, “Part I”, “Part II”, and “conclude” would anchor to the appropriate targets. If the reference doesn’t anchor to a clear target, you should add some clarifying information enclosed in parentheses immediately after the [REF] Coding Marker: As the [REF](link “Prosecutor’s comments” to the second quote in section II) Prosecutor’s comments will show, the Defendant was …

  4. For numbers , in general, spell out integers from zero to ninety-nine. For larger numbers, use numerals other than in the exceptions listed below:

    • Exceptions:
      • Spell out a number that begins a sentence.
      • Spell out round numbers like hundred, thousand, million.
      • Be consistent with numbers in a series; either all should be spelled out or all should be numerals.
        • E.g. The sentences were for twelve, forty-five, and fifty months respectively. but The sentences were for 12, 45, and 132 months respectively.
      • Use numerals if a number contains a decimal point.
      • Use numerals if a number refers to percentages or currency.
      • Use numerals if a number refers to a section, subdivision, or page.
    • For five digit numbers or larger, use commas to separate groups of three digits: e.g. 1,234,567 but 1234
      • An exception is that you should not add these commas to numbers found in citations.
  5. Use the appropriate typographical entities.

    • Do check proper names to make sure they have the proper diacritical marks. Search for names in Google and then scrape the name and paste into your document to preserve these marks. For example, use Côte d’Ivoire and Slobodan Milošević
    • A hyphen is not the same as a minus sign, an en-dash, or an em-dash. Visually, they look like similar horizontal line segments, but they are used for different purposes. Sometimes, when the webmaster notices that a substitution for a hyphen is appropriate, he’ll make the switch during Coding, but it’s best if you use the appropriate marks in your comment.
      - (hyphen)
      Used for compound words (mother-in-law) or hyphenation.
      (minus)
      Used to indicate negative numbers or the subtraction operation.
      (en-dash)
      • Used to indicate a range:
        Chapters 5–7
        pages 5–10
        10–11:00 a.m.
      • a score:
        The Bears beat the Bulls 99–97.
        The bill passed the Senate 98–0.
      • conflict:
        the liberal–conservative split
      • connection/direction:
        the San Francisco–New York flight
        The river runs north–south.

      Should not be used if the range has been introduced with “from” or “between”, e.g. She served on the board from 2014 to 2017. not She served on the board from 2014–2017.

      (em-dash)
      Can be used in a variety of ways:
      • in place of commas:
        When he finally arrived — nearly two hours late — he’d forgotten his speech. (tends to have a more emphatic emphasis than a phrase separated by commas)
      • in place of parentheses:
        She advanced the doctoral students — 24 of them — to candidacy.
      • in place of colons:
        After deliberating, they reached a verdict — guilty.

      Limit to two em-dashes per sentence to avoid confusion.

    • Other useful math, currency, keyboard, and other symbols can be copied from the list below.

      List of Symbols

      (click to open)

      §
      section
      paragraph
      minus
      ×
      multiply
      ÷
      divide
      double prime
      single prime
      not equal
      approximately equal
      infinity
      °
      degree
      therefore
      dagger
      £
      pound
      ¥
      yen
      euro
      ¢
      cent
      shift
      ctrl
      option
      command
      return or enter
      delete
      eject
      power
      tab
      escape
      escape
      caps lock
      apple character
      left arrow
      right arrow
      up arrow
      down arrow

    entities exemplars:

  6. The ICC Forum uses the serial comma sometimes called the Oxford comma. The serial comma is the comma after “second” in a series like: first, second, and third

    In the following example from Wikipedia, consider how the use of a serial comma would resolve the ambiguity as to the identity of the ex-wives:

    Among those interviewed were his two ex-wives, Kris Kristofferson and Robert Duvall.

  7. Signals that are recognized will be italicized during Coding. Below is a list of recognized signals. If you wish to use a signal that isn’t on this list, use the [SIGNAL] Coding Marker to treat the word or phrase which follows as a signal. For example:

    [SIGNAL] Compare e.g, Beatty v. Little, …

    If the signal is on this list, there is no need to use the [SIGNAL] Coding Marker; the signal will be recognized during Coding.

    List of Recognized Signals

    (click to open)

    • accord
    • but cf.
    • but see
    • cf.
    • compare
    • contra see
    • see
    • see also
    • see e.g.
    • see further
    • see generally
    • see inter alia
    • see, e.g.

    signal exemplars:

  8. During Coding, recognized foreign language terms (often latin, but not always) will be italicized and wrapped in a definition that users can see when they hover over the word. If you wish to use a foreign language term that isn’t on this list, use the [LATIN] Coding Marker followed by the definition within parentheses, to treat the following word or phrase as a foreign language term. For example:

    … and encouraged the development of the [LATIN](designer clothes sold ready-to-wear) Prêt-à-porter industry which had a significant effect …

    If the term is already on this list, there is no need to use the [LATIN] Coding Marker as it will be handled automatically during Coding. This includes commonly used terms like “id.”, “supra”, and “infra”.

    List of Recognized Foreign Terms

    (click to open; hover for definitions)

    • a fortiori
    • a priori
    • absentia
    • actus reus
    • ad hoc
    • ad litem
    • amicus curiae
    • amicus
    • arguendo
    • audi alteram partem
    • aut dedere aut judicare
    • crimen sine lege
    • de facto
    • de jure
    • de minimis
    • dolus eventualis
    • erga omnes
    • et al.
    • ex ante
    • ex officio
    • ex post
    • ex post facto
    • expressio unius
    • Expressio unius est exclusio alterius
    • hors de combat
    • Id.
    • in statu nascendi
    • infra
    • inter alia
    • i.o.
    • ipse dixit
    • ipso facto
    • jus cogens
    • kompetenz-kompetenz
    • lex specialis
    • lus standi
    • male captus, bene detentus
    • mato oput
    • mens rea
    • modus
    • modus operandi
    • noscitur a sociis
    • ne bis in idem
    • nemo auditur propriam turpitudinem allegans
    • note verbale
    • nullum crimen sine lege
    • op. cit.
    • opinio juris
    • pacta sunt servanda
    • pacta tertiis nec nocent nec prosunt
    • passim
    • per se
    • persona non grata
    • principe de legalite des poursuites
    • proprio motu
    • qua
    • quid iuris
    • ratione materiae
    • ratione personae
    • ratione temporis
    • raison d’être
    • realpolitik
    • sic
    • sine qua non
    • stare decisis
    • status quo
    • stricto sensu
    • Sturm und Drang
    • sub secreto
    • sui generis
    • sua sponte
    • supra
    • travaux préparatoires
    • ultra vires
    • vis-à-vis
    • viz.
    • volte-face

    foreign term exemplars:

  9. Dates

    • Use the American form for dates, where the month precedes the day, rather than the European form of date. For example: August 2, 2017 not 2 August 2017
    • Do not abbreviate the month—spell it out. Months for citations will be abbreviated in Coding.

    Click here for information on dates as a part of a citation.

  10. Do not use quotation marks to emphasize a particular word. Use italics instead. Save quotation marks for actual quotes. Generally, prefer double quotes over single quotes, except in cases where single quotes are particularly called for, e.g. for a quote within a quote. When defining an abbreviation inside parentheses, quotes aren’t required: International Criminal Court (ICC) not International Criminal Court (“ICC”)

  11. Lists are coded in a particular way in HTML. There are three types of lists: ordered, unordered, and description lists.

    • Ordered lists lead with numbers or letters in front: e.g. 1, 2, 3 or a, b, c.
    • Unordered lists often have bullets before each item: •
    • Description lists—uncommon in comments—have a list of terms, where each term in the list is followed by a description of that term. They are often used to code glossaries.

    If you wish to use the special markup for a list, mark the beginning of the list with the [LIST] marker. For example:
    [LIST] (a) this is the first item, (b) this is the second item, and (c) this is the third item.

    The example would appear in the comment as:

    1. this is the first item,
    2. this is the second item,
    3. this is the third item.
  12. Videos that are to be embedded in the comment must be hosted on an online service like YouTube or Vimeo. They are usually styled as Figures.

    If the video is meant to be embedded, provide the URL to the video and add a marker in the text where it should appear: [VIDEO] http://youtube.com/foobar For an example of a Coded Comment that includes an embedded video, see Christopher Werby & Olga Werby, Practical Strategies for ICC Outreach, n.40, ICC Forum (Feb. 17, 2015), available online.

    If a link to a video is just used as the source for a citation, it doesn’t need to be embedded in the comment; it is treated like any other link to an online source. Just provide the URL to the video in the standard form: available at http://youtube.com/foobar

    A video pincite uses a time indicator: e.g. at 5:51

Comment Body

The “Comment Body” section of these guidelines refers to items that are applicable to the main text of your comment and not to your comment’s Citations section.

  1. Use a mixed case headline style rather than all caps, all lowercase, or sentence style capitalization.

    • Do not capitalize articles, conjunctions, or prepositions that are four or fewer letters, unless they begin the headline or immediately follow a colon.

    • Headlines do not use terminal punctuation other than an optional question mark.

    Example: Hypothesis: The Existence of the ICC Protects National Courts from Political Interference not Hypothesis: the existence of the ICC protects national courts from political interference.

  2. If you choose to employ an outlining style in your comment — headlines are indented by varying amounts that correspond to the organization of sections of your comment — follow the specific order of outline markers set forth below.

    Do not use the automatic numbering feature in Word; rather manually type in the proper marker followed by a period.

    The main title of your comment is level 0 and does not use an outline marker. Subsequent headings are marked using the following for each level:

    1. First level — uppercase roman numerals: I. II. III.
    2. Second level — uppercase latin letters: A. B. C.
    3. Third level — arabic numerals: 1. 2. 3.
    4. Fourth level — lowercase roman numerals: i. ii. iii.
    5. Fifth level and beyond: not supported.
  3. In the comment body, block quotes, are used to set off long quotes by separating, indenting, and italicizing them. A long quote is one that’s longer than one sentence or about 20 words; shorter quotes generally remain inline with the rest of the text. Use the [BLOCKQUOTE] Coding Marker just before the quote to mark the beginning of the block quote. While quotation marks are removed from a block quote during Coding, keep them in your comment to indicate the beginning and end of the quote. Usually the location of the end of the quote is clear; but, if not, add an optional [ENDQUOTE] Coding Marker at the end.

    Example: This is revealed in the Rome Statute, Art. 45, that states: [BLOCKQUOTE]“[T]the Prosecutor [...] shall [...] make a solemn undertaking in open court to exercise his or her respective functions impartially and conscientiously.”[ENDQUOTE]

    Becomes:

    This is revealed in the Rome Statute, Art. 45, that states:

    [T]the Prosecutor […] shall […] make a solemn undertaking in open court to exercise his or her respective functions impartially and conscientiously.

    Click the [BLOCKQUOTE] Coding Marker to see how it is used in citations.

  4. Tables are text or numbers in the form of columns; or they are a grid that has rows and columns with information or numbers.

    Tables are generally created in Word or Excel and embedded in the Word document. They are not images or screenshots; when coded in HTML, each grid cell is surrounded by code.

    Tables should be consecutively numbered; if both tables and figures are used, they can be numbered independently: a comment can have both a Table 1 and a Figure 1.

    Each Table should have a caption in the form: Table 1: Incarceration days served prior to commencement of trial. Note that the caption uses sentence case style, has terminal punctuation, and appears below the table.

    For an example of a Coded Comment with many tables, see Christopher Sanchez, The Al Mahdi Case Study: Establishing a Media Bias Baseline to Support Future Research Regarding how ICC’s Operations Affects Public Perception, Tables 1–15, ICC Forum (Aug. 19, 2017), available online.

  5. Figures are illustrations other than Tables — drawings; photos; videos; and graphs other than tables including bar charts, pie charts, and so on.

    If the Figure was not created in Word or in Excel, then a version of the image needs to be sent for Coding as a separate attachment.

    • If the original creation file is available, send that native file as well. For example, if you created the Figure in Photoshop, send the layered original psd creation file in addition to the uncompressed jpg or png file generated from the creation file and intended for use as the Figure.
    • The filename of the attachment should clearly indicate which Figure number it represents. Examples of communicative filenames are: 2017-08-26 Figure 6 - Piechart of Sentence Outcomes - Excel Creation File.xls and 2017-08-26 Figure 6 - Piechart of Sentence Outcomes - Final Output.pdf
    • If available, vector file formats (ai, eps, pdf) are preferred over bitmap or raster file formats (jpg, png, gif, tiff).

      Bitmap vs. Vector Illustration

      Bitmaps (top) degrade when enlarged, while vector formats remain sharp.

    • Vector versions created in Adobe Illustrator (ai, eps) should be saved to be compatible with Illustrator CS6 or previous.
    • Some images like photographs are always bitmaps, so no vector version will be available. Bitmap images should be in high resolution — a minimum of 1116 pixels wide and preferably more. Do not upsize a smaller version.
    • Bitmap images should not have any lossy compression applied. Use the highest quality settings when exporting them.
    • For questions on transmitting Figures for Coding, please contact admin@iccforum.com.

    Each Figure is consecutively numbered and requires a caption created in the style of a Table caption described above. Figure 1: Flyers were distributed calling for the arrest of members of the political opposition.

Citations Generally

This “Citations Generally” section of these guidelines — and the following section Parts of Citations — refer to items that are applicable to the citation section of your comment and not to the Comment Body (main text) section.

  1. Shortcodes

    • Are you citing one of the following statutes or documents? Good news! You can use a shortcode followed by your pinpoint citation (pincite), if any, and the full citation will be Coded for you. For example, to cite to the Rome Statute, just use the phrase “Rome Statute” in your citation and the full citation will be added during Coding. Click any of the following shortcodes to see the full citation.

    shortcode exemplars:

  2. Block quotes — Use [BLOCKQUOTE]

    • These should appear after the citation and enclosed in parentheses. Concluding period appears outside the end parenthesis.

      • ("This is a quotation.").
    • Precede with the [BLOCKQUOTE] Coding Marker

    • Example: Rome Statute, supra note 6, at Article 45. [BLOCKQUOTE] (“[T]the Prosecutor [...] shall [...] make a solemn undertaking in open court to exercise his or her respective functions impartially and conscientiously.”).

      Becomes:

      Rome Statute, supra note 6, at Art. 45.

      (“[T]the Prosecutor […] shall […] make a solemn undertaking in open court to exercise his or her respective functions impartially and conscientiously.”).

    • See also how the [BLOCKQUOTE] Coding Marker is used in the main text of the comment.

    [BLOCKQUOTE] exemplars:

  3. Remarks — Use [REMARK]

    • These appear after the citation and are enclosed in parentheses. The terminating punctuation (usually a period) usually appears outside the end parenthesis.

      • (This is a remark).
    • Precede with the [REMARK] Coding Marker

    • Example: Rome Statute, supra note 6, at Article 45. [REMARK] (The requirement of a solemn undertaking is similar to an oath to uphold a constitution or other founding document).

      Becomes:

      Rome Statute, supra note 6, at Art. 45.

      (The requirement of a solemn undertaking is similar to an oath to uphold a constitution or other founding document).

    [REMARK] exemplars:

  4. Periods

    • With few exceptions, all footnotes end with a period.
  5. Books — Use [BOOK]

    • Add the [BOOK] Coding Marker at the beginning of the citation to a book, after any optional signal. Books are formatted differently during Coding and the [BOOK] Coding Marker communicates to the webmaster that the citation is to a book.

    • Do not include the publisher (and/or the publisher’s city) unless there’s the potential for ambiguity.
    • If you do need to add the publisher, do not add a comma after the publisher’s name and before the year — e.g. (Penguin Books 2016) not (Penguin Books, 2016)
    • Append a comma if “ed.” or “eds.” means editor(s) — e.g. (Richard H. Steinberg ed., 2016) not (Richard H. Steinberg ed. 2016)
    • Do not append a comma if “ed.” means edition — e.g. (2d ed. 2016) not (2d ed., 2016)
    • Do include the edition if there’s more than one.
    • When a book consists of a collection of articles, sometimes you need to refer to a single article and sometimes you need to refer to the entire collection of articles.

      A citation to a single article in a book collection usually contains these elements in this order:

      • The author(s) of the individual article
      • article title
      • in
      • book title (will be in small caps after Coding)
      • optional pincite, with no leading comma
      • begin parenthesis
        • author(s) of the book collection
        • ed., or eds.,
        • If the edition is greater than one, then the edition number followed by ed. but not with a comma appended
        • If there have been several publishers and there could be ambiguity about which version, then the publisher’s name but not with a comma appended
        • the date
      • end parenthesis
      • If a link is available, then , available at followed by the URL.

      A citation to a book collection of articles as a whole usually contains these elements in this order:

      • author(s) of the book collection
      • ed., or eds.,
      • book title (will be in small caps after Coding)
      • optional pincite, with no leading comma
      • begin parenthesis
        • If the edition is greater than one, then the edition number followed by ed. but not with a comma appended
        • If there have been several publishers and there could be ambiguity about which version, then the publisher’s name but not with a comma appended
        • the date
      • end parenthesis
      • If a link is available, then , available at followed by the URL.
    • A book can also be a unitary whole. A unitary book citation usually contains these elements in this order:

      • The author(s)
      • book title (will be in small caps after Coding)
      • optional pincite, with no leading comma
      • begin parenthesis
        • If the edition is greater than one, then the edition number followed by ed. but not with a comma appended
        • If there have been several publishers and there could be ambiguity about which version, then the publisher’s name but not with a comma appended
        • the date
      • end parenthesis
      • If a link is available, then , available at followed by the URL. If a link is not available, then add a [NOTFOUND] Coding Marker.

    [BOOK] exemplars:

  6. Reports — Use [REPORT]

    • Add the [REPORT] Coding Marker at the beginning of the citation, after any optional signal. Reports sometimes need a different Coding treatment and the Coding Marker communicates to the webmaster that the citation is to a report.

    • The titles of reports are often rendered in small caps, like the title of a book. Exceptions are to ICC and UN Reports, whose titles are not formatted that way.

    [REPORT] exemplars:

Parts of Citations

The “Parts of Citations” section of these guidelines — and the previous section Citations Generally — refer to items that are applicable to the citation section of your comment and not to the Comment Body (main text) section.

  1. authors

    • Names are always in first-name last-name order.

    • Use full names where known. Alfred Baker is better than A. Baker is better than Baker

    • When there are more than one author, the last author is separated with an ampersand rather than a comma. The others in a series are separated with a comma. So, for two authors: Alfred Baker & Amelia Bastion For more than two authors: Phuong Pham, Patrick Vinck, Eric Stover, Andrew Moss, Marieke Wierda & Richard Bailey The last example could also be Phuong Pham et al. not Phuong Pham, et al. — no comma after the author — but it’s usually better to list all the authors unless there are too many of them.

      multiple authors exemplars:

  2. institutional authors

    • In your comment, do not abbreviate institutions and publishers. Where appropriate, abbreviation happens in Coding.

    • When the author is an institution that begins the citation, it is not abbreviated, e.g. International Criminal Court not ICC

    • When an individual author is credited on behalf of an institution, use the individual author name, followed by the institution (abbreviated in Coding), prior to the title.

    institutional authors exemplars:

  3. titles

    • The title of a source is not enclosed in quotation marks.
    • In your comment, never make the titles all caps or small caps even for books. The appropriate font formatting is done during Coding.
    • Titles should be in mixed case headline style. Do not capitalize articles, conjunctions, or prepositions that are four or fewer letters, unless they begin the headline or immediately follow a colon.

      • Where the original title is not in headline case, you must use your judgment. Generally convert the title to headline case unless doing so will change the meaning of the title.
      • As an exception to the above, if the title is to a main page title of a website, use the capitalization of the original source, unless it is all caps.

    title exemplars:

  4. location — publications and institutions

    • For all citation types, do not abbreviate institutions and publishers. That happens in Coding. E.g. use Florida Journal of International Law not Fla. J. Int’l L.
      • You write: Columbia Journal of Transnational Law
      • During coding, the webmaster abbreviates the publication or institution, wraps it with an abbreviation definition (can be seen on hover), and provides a link to the publication’s home page:
        Colum. J. Transnat’l L.
      • No action is necessary on your part to facilitate the link to the publication’s home page in your citation.
    • Location for consecutively paginated sources such as Law Review Articles

      • e.g. 23 California Law Review 25 (April 2008)
      • The parts are:

        • Volume Number
          • If the volume number is something like 23:4 or 23(4), skip the secondary part and just use “23”.
        • Name of Publication
          • Do not abbreviate it in your comment; if appropriate, it will be abbreviated during Coding.
        • First Page of Article
          • Do not include the full span of pages for the article. Just use the first page of the article. Ex: 25 not 25–48
        • If there’s a pincite, add a comma and the pincite page number(s). 23 California Law Review 25, 32 (April 2008)
        • Date
          • Dates are enclosed in parentheses.
          • Do not abbreviate months; they will be abbreviated during Coding.

          See citation dates below.

      consecutively paged exemplars:

    • Location for non consecutively paginated sources such as Magazines

      • e.g. Opinio Juris (August 20, 2015)
      • The parts are:

        • Name of Publication
          • Do not abbreviate it in your comment; if appropriate, it will be abbreviated during Coding.
        • If there’s a pincite, add a comma and the pincite page number(s). Opinio Juris, 32–33 (August 20, 2015)
        • Date
          • Dates are enclosed in parentheses.
          • Do not abbreviate months; they will be abbreviated during Coding.

          See citation dates below.

      non consecutively paged exemplars:

  5. pincites

    • Do not put an indicator before the page number; no p. nor pp. nor page
    • In a citation, you can use the following entities for paragraph or section indicators, shown singular then plural: § ¶¶ §§

      • You can optionally use the following abbreviations. They will be replaced by the entities above during Coding: para. sect. paras. sects.
    • Pincites to sections or paragraph numbers are not generally preceded by a comma. e.g. 12 New York Law Review 35 ¶ 25 (September 16, 2003) not 12 New York Law Review 35, ¶ 25 (September 16, 2003)

    • The pincite for books, usually a page number, appears directly after the title with no preceding comma.
    • A pincite for a consecutively paged source follows the beginning page for the article
      • e.g. for pincite page 271: 23 California Law Review 256, 271 (April 2008)
    • For a video, use a time indicator to cite to a particular moment: at 5:51 e.g. see citation.
    • During Coding, references to articles or other parts of the Rome Statute or the Genocide Convention will be wrapped in code that reveals that part on hover, e.g. see citation.

    pincite exemplars:

  6. dates

    • Do not abbreviate the date. It’s done in Coding.
      • Spell out the full month — e.g. use September not Sept. nor Sep.
      • In Coding, citation dates will be abbreviated to the first three characters of the month, followed by a period. “May” is an exception in that it is not abbreviated.
      • These abbreviations only occur in citations. In the main body of your comment, months are always spelled out.
    • Use the American form of date where the month precedes the day: September 27, 2007 not 27 September 2007
    • A full date is written September 27, 2007 Note the comma after the day.
    • There is no comma after the month when only the month and year are used: September 2007 not September, 2007
    • When known, more specific dates are preferred over more general ones. September 27, 2007 is preferred over September 2007 is preferred over 2007 But don’t use seasons. “Spring 2008” should be simply (2008)
    • Sometimes it can be difficult to tie down a date. If a source uses “last updated” then use that date and include a last visited segment to the citation.
    • To determine the date that a PDF was created, load the PDF, right-click on the page, and select “Document Properties”. Then go to the “Description” tab and check the details in the displayed Created Date section.
    • For ICC Forum Invited Expert comments, cite to the launch date for that issue.
    • Click here for information on using dates in the main text of the comment.

    date exemplars:

  7. hereinafter

    • The form is: [hereinafter Rome Statute]
    • The term is always hereinafter not hereafter nor hereinafter cited as or something else.
    • The hereinafter reference is enclosed in brackets, not parentheses.
    • The reference after hereinafter — Rome Statute in the example above — can be a shortened version of the title. It is not enclosed in quotes.
      • Pick a short phrase that clearly differentiate the title from other references that may be similar. Only use the full title if it’s short.
      • Make an effort to preserve the intention of the full title. For an example, see the notes for this citation.
    • The hereinafter reference appears after the citation date and before the ‘available at’ reference. If the hereinafter reference follows a closing parenthesis (often the date), omit a preceding comma.

    hereinafter exemplars:

  8. urls

    • The ICC Forum is an online publication. Accordingly, online URLs to sources are very important. You must research your sources and try to find available versions accessible with a URL.

    • Do research to find the best version you can. Google is your friend in this endeavor.

      • Generally, a PDF is preferred over a webpage text source. But not always. For example, the web version of the Rome Statute on the ICC Forum is better than available PDF versions. So if you are trying to select between two versions of the same source, use your judgment as to which is a better resource for your reader.
      • If only a paywall version exists, then use that and follow with a [PAYWALL] Coding Marker

      • [PAYWALL] exemplars:
    • If you can’t locate an online version of the source after a diligent source, you may omit it. But put a [NOTFOUND] Coding Marker where the URL would go to indicate that the omission is not an oversight.

      [NOTFOUND] exemplars:

    • Be careful when copying the URL to get all of it.

      • URLs always start with the protocol, either http:// or https://

      • Use the shortest version of the URL that still works. This requires some experimentation; often there are extra characters at the end of the URL that can be trimmed away.

        • If there’s a question mark in the URL and then a string of characters afterwards, try copying just up to but not including the question mark and paste that into a separate window in your browser. If you get to the same source, use the shortened version.
        • For example, the URL
          https://www.amazon.com/Assessing-Legacy-ICTY-Richard-Steinberg/dp/9004186247/ref=sr_1_4?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1504564689&sr=1-4&keywords=richard+h.+steinberg
          can be shortened to https://www.amazon.com/Assessing-Legacy-ICTY-Richard-Steinberg/dp/9004186247/ref=sr_1_4
          and then even further https://www.amazon.com/Assessing-Legacy-ICTY-Richard-Steinberg/dp/9004186247
        • But be sure to check that the URL still works before using it in your citation.
      • Beyond trying to shortening it by removing extra characters from the end, never change a URL in any other way. Do not correct misspellings or capitalization within a URL; changing it often breaks it.
    • URLs are placed in the citation after the date and the optional hereinafter reference.

    • URLs are prefaced with available at or, if this is an archived document, archived at

      • During Coding, URLs will wrap a clickable word — usually online or paywall — the whole URL isn’t displayed but can be reached with a click.
      • During Coding, URLs often are decorated with graphical flags that indicate that the link is an external link,    a PDF,    or a DOC file.
    • URLs can be archived. This is an optional step but it helps combat the web scourge of “link rot” where, over time, URLs can no longer be reached.

      • Create the archived version by using the webcitation.org service.

        • Here is the form that needs to be filled out for each source.
        • No login is required, but you do need to use your email address. The URL to the archived version will be sent to you via email almost immediately after you submit the form.
        • Carefully fill out the fields on the form. If you write the citation first before archiving the source, you’ll have the information you need to cut and paste — with some massaging; the form wants last-name, first-name order, for example — into the fields.
        • When you get the webcitation URL, check it to make sure that the source was properly archived.

          • Sometimes webcitation URLs will fail and will display garbage when you check it. If the webcitation fails for your comment, omit the archive version from your citation. If it fails for a Background Materials citation, where an archived version isn’t optional, add the bad webcitation URL followed by a [BADARCHIVE] Coding Marker. E.g., archived at http://webcitation.org/65432 [BADARCHIVE]
      • The URLs for the archived version are placed subsequent to the source’s main URL, prefaced by , archived at

        • E.g., , available at http://foobar.com/document.pdf, archived at http://webcitation.org/65432 [PDF]

      archived exemplars:

    • URLs sometimes need format clarification. Format clarification is necessary when an examination of the URL itself doesn’t reveal the format of the file reached by the link. In the final comment, the format is indicated with small graphical flags after the URL: external link,    a PDF,    or a DOC file.

      • If the URL refers to a PDF or Word DOC file, but the URL doesn’t end with a “.pdf” or “.doc” extension, then add the appropriate Coding Marker (preceded by a space) after the URL: [PDF] [DOC]
      • Example: available at http://foobar.com/this_is_a_pdf_file [PDF]

        • The [PDF] Coding Marker is not necessary in this example because of the “.pdf” extension: available at http://foobar.com/this_is_a_pdf_file.pdf
      • webcitation.org links often need the [PDF] Coding Marker because they don’t have a “.pdf” extension.

      [PDF] exemplars:

  9. last visited

    • The form is: (last visited August 2, 2017)
    • Last visited is only used when the citation has no date. For example, a citation to the home page of a website would need a last visited date.
    • The last visited date is wrapped in parentheses. It appears after the available online URLs and is not preceded by a comma.
    • The phrase is last visited not last accessed last reviewed last viewed and so on.
    • E.g., available at http://foobar.com (last visited August 2, 2017).

    last visited exemplars:

  10. repeated citations—supra and id.

    • Never repeat a full citation in a subsequent footnote. Always use either id. or supra

    • id.

      • Can only be used if the reference (or a previous use of id. or supra) is immediately above.
      • It must be unambiguous. For example, if the reference immediately above cites several sources — a string cite — then id. is unclear as to which it refers. In that case, use supra instead.
      • Optional pincites to pages are preceded by “at” with no preceding comma. E.g. id. at 35 not id., at 35
      • Optional pincites to sections or paragraphs omit the “at”. There should be a space after the paragraph or section symbols. E.g. id. ¶ 4.5 or id. §§ 6–7
      • During Coding, id. will be wrapped in a definition tag, italicized, and then further wrapped in an anchor link to the original source.
    • supra

      • Form: Porter, supra note 5, at 35. or Rome Statute, supra note 6, at Art. 5.
      • Use for a previous reference that is not immediately above or where id. would be ambiguous.
      • Generally precede supra with the last name of the author.

        • If there is a single author, use the last name:
          • Polkinghorne, supra note 38, at 142.
        • If there are two authors, use the last names of both separated with an ampersand:
          • Polkinghorne & Cody, supra note 38, at 142.
        • If there are three or more authors, use the last name of the first author followed by et al.
          • Polkinghorne et al., supra note 38, at 142.
      • If no author is available, then use the title. If the title is long, then create and use a hereinafter reference with a shortened version of the title in the first citation to the source.

        • Rome Statute, supra note 6, at Preamble.
        • Victims' Guide, supra note 10.

        See hereinafter section, above.

      • Pincites are optional.

        • They are not necessary if the original citation had a pincite and this use refers to the same page or section.
        • They are not necessary if the citation is to the entire source generally.
        • Pincites in supra citations are preceded by a comma, the word “at” and a space.

Background Materials

This section is only of interest to ICC Forum Associate Editors who are tasked with doing research for the Forum’s main issues, each of which has a page of Background Materials which can be found from a link at the top of every page.

Creating a reference for an item destined for the Background Materials page is similar to creating a Coded Comment citation in most respects, other than a few differences noted here. Additionally, most background citations are followed by commentary.

  • Use the same form of citation described above for footnotes

    • archived at
      • Use webcitation.org to create an archive version for each online citation.
      • You need to create archived versions of citations for background materials. This differs from footnote citations where archiving sources is optional.
  • Organize the list of citations under the following headings, in this order:

    1. Relevant Treaties (in reverse chronological order)
    2. Governments and Intergovernmental Organizations (alphabetical by organization, then reverse chronological order)
    3. News Articles (reverse chronological order)
    4. Non-Governmental Organizations (alphabetical by organization, then reverse chronological order)
    5. Articles (alphabetical by author, then reverse chronological order)
    6. Books (in alphabetical order by author)
  • Citations should be followed by commentary which describe the main points made by the citation in the context of the ICC Forum question.

    • Commentary to citations in Background materials are added as if they were remarks in footnotes, except they aren't wrapped in parentheses.
      • e.g. — [REMARK] This article surveys the historical development of international criminal law.
  • background materials exemplars:

Exemplars

  • News Sources

    • Generally
        • Notes
          • Dates are not wrapped in parentheses.
          • Sometimes it can be tricky to determine if a source is a news source. Generally, if the source is from an NGO or an advocacy group, it is not a news source.
    • With Author
      1. News Source; Author
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Andrew E. Kramer, In Russia, Exile in Comfort for Leaders Like Assad, New York Times, December 28, 2012, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/29/world/europe/in-barvikha-russia-leaders-like-assad-find-haven.html.
        • Andrew E. Kramer, In Russia, Exile in Comfort for Leaders Like Assad, N.Y. Times, Dec. 28, 2012, available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Andrew E. Kramer</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		In Russia, Exile in Comfort for Leaders Like Assad</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="New York Times">
          			<a href="http://nytimes.com/" class="external">
          				N.Y. Times,</a>  
          		</abbr>
          		<span class="date">
          			Dec. 28, 2012</span></span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/29/world/europe/in-barvikha-russia-leaders-like-assad-find-haven.html" class="external">
          			online.</a>  
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Andrew E. Kramer, In Russia, Exile in Comfort for Leaders Like Assad, New York Times, December 28, 2012, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/29/world/europe/in-barvikha-russia-leaders-like-assad-find-haven.html.
      2. News Source; Author; Remark; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • [REMARK] can be written inline and will be formatted properly in Coding.
          • As a proper name, Médecins Sans Frontières should include its proper diacritical marks.
          • Note that the abbreviation “DRC” is wrapped with a definition during Coding.
        • Phil Coomes, Into the Bush: Vaccinating a Remote Community, BBC News, November 17, 2014, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/in-pictures-30035323. [REMARK] (Contains an article and imagery of a photojournalist as he accompanies a Médecins Sans Frontières vaccination team into a hard-to-reach rural area of the DRC).
        • Phil Coomes, Into the Bush: Vaccinating a Remote Community, BBC News, Nov. 17, 2014, available online.

          (Contains an article and imagery of a photojournalist as he accompanies a Médecins Sans Frontières vaccination team into a hard-to-reach rural area of the DRC).

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Phil Coomes</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Into the Bush: Vaccinating a Remote Community</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="British Broadcasting Corporation News">
          			<a class="external" href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news">
          				BBC News,</a></abbr> 
          		<span class="date">
          			Nov. 17, 2014</span></span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a class="external" href="http://www.bbc.com/news/in-pictures-30035323">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
          <p class="blockquote">
          	(Contains an article and imagery of a photojournalist as he accompanies a M&eacute;decins Sans Fronti&egrave;res vaccination team into a hard-to-reach rural area of the 
          	<abbr title="Democratic Republic of Congo">
          		DRC</abbr>).
          </p>
        • Phil Coomes, Into the Bush: Vaccinating a Remote Community, BBC News, November 17, 2014, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/in-pictures-30035323. [REMARK] (Contains an article and imagery of a photojournalist as he accompanies a Médecins Sans Frontières vaccination team into a hard-to-reach rural area of the DRC).
      3. Title; Signal; News Source; Remark; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • The title in the original was converted to headline case from sentence case. The original title is: “Kenya ICC witness killing haunts Eldoret family”.
        • See, e.g., Emmanuel Igunza, Kenya ICC Witness Killing Haunts Eldoret Family, BBC News, January 9, 2015, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-30716696. [REMARK] (On the killing of a witness under the ICC’s witness protection program).
        • See, e.g., Emmanuel Igunza, Kenya ICC Witness Killing Haunts Eldoret Family, BBC News, Jan. 9, 2015, available online.

          (On the killing of a witness under the ICC’s witness protection program).

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See, e.g.</span>, 
          	<span class="author">
          		Emmanuel Igunza</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Kenya 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		Witness Killing Haunts Eldoret Family</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="British Broadcasting Corporation News">
          			<a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/news" class="external">
          				BBC News,</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		<span class="date">
          			Jan. 9, 2015</span></span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-30716696" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
          <p class="blockquote">
          	(On the killing of a witness under the 
          	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          		ICC</abbr>’s witness protection program). 
          </p>
        • See, e.g., Emmanuel Igunza, Kenya ICC Witness Killing Haunts Eldoret Family, BBC News, January 9, 2015, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-30716696. [REMARK] (On the killing of a witness under the ICC’s witness protection program).
      4. Title; News Source
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Normally, a headline does not have quote marks around it. But here, it is an actual quote.
          • Normally, a headline originally in sentence case would be converted to mixed case in headline style. But here, that would be inappropriate since it is an actual quote. So it is not converted.
        • Simon Allison, ‘The Gambia coup didn’t just fail, it backfired’, Daily Maverick,  January 7, 2015, available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/07/gambia-failed-coup-encourage-president-jammeh.
        • Simon Allison, ‘The Gambia coup didn’t just fail, it backfired’, Daily Maverick, Jan. 7, 2015, available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Simon Allison</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		‘The Gambia coup didn’t just fail, it backfired’</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/" class="external">
          			Daily Maverick,</a> 
          		<span class="date">
          			Jan. 7, 2015</span></span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/07/gambia-failed-coup-encourage-president-jammeh" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Simon Allison, ‘The Gambia coup didn’t just fail, it backfired’, Daily Maverick,  January 7, 2015, available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/07/gambia-failed-coup-encourage-president-jammeh.
      5. News Source; Title; Blockquote; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Note that the title has been converted to headline case from the original: “Gambia latest African nation to withdraw from International Criminal Court”
        • Jane Onyanga-Omara, Gambia Latest African Nation to Withdraw from International Criminal Court, USA Today, October 26, 2016, available at http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/foobar. [BLOCKQUOTE] (“Gambia’s withdrawal was the third country to pull out in two weeks, after Burundi and South Africa.”).
        • Jane Onyanga-Omara, Gambia Latest African Nation to Withdraw from International Criminal Court, USA Today, Oct. 26, 2016, available online.

          (“Gambia’s withdrawal was the third country to pull out in two weeks, after Burundi and South Africa.”).

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Jane Onyanga-Omara</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Gambia Latest African Nation to Withdraw from International Criminal Court</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://www.usatoday.com/" class="external">
          			<abbr title="United States of America">
          				USA 
          			</abbr>
          			Today,</a> 
          		<span class="date">
          			Oct. 26, 2016</span></span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2016/10/26/gambia-latest-african-nation-withdraw-international-criminal-court/92766524/" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
          <p class="blockquote">
          	(“Gambia’s withdrawal was the third country to pull out in two weeks, after Burundi and South Africa.”).
          </p>
        • Jane Onyanga-Omara, Gambia Latest African Nation to Withdraw from International Criminal Court, USA Today, October 26, 2016, available at http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/foobar. [BLOCKQUOTE] (“Gambia’s withdrawal was the third country to pull out in two weeks, after Burundi and South Africa.”).
    • Without Author
      1. News Source; No Author
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Sudan Says Decision to Expel Aid Groups is Irrevocable, Sudan Tribune, March 8, 2009, available at http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article30414.
        • Sudan Says Decision to Expel Aid Groups is Irrevocable, Sudan Tribune, Mar. 8, 2009, available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		Sudan Says Decision to Expel Aid Groups is Irrevocable</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a class="external" href="http://www.sudantribune.com/">
          			Sudan Tribune,</a>
          		<span class="date">
          			Mar. 8, 2009</span>, 
          	</span>
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a class="external" href="http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article30414">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Sudan Says Decision to Expel Aid Groups is Irrevocable, Sudan Tribune, March 8, 2009, available at http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article30414.
      2. News Source, No Author, Signal
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • See Dutch Arms Trafficker to Liberia Given War Crimes Conviction, The Guardian, April 22, 2017, available at https://www.theguardian.com/law/2017/apr/22/dutch-arms-trafficker-to-liberia-guus-kouwenhoven-given-war-crimes-conviction.
        • See Dutch Arms Trafficker to Liberia Given War Crimes Conviction, The Guardian, Apr. 22, 2017, available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		Dutch Arms Trafficker to Liberia Given War Crimes Conviction</span>, 
          	<a href="http://www.guardiannews.com/" class="external">
          		The Guardian,</a> 
          	<span class="date">
          		Apr. 22, 2017</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.theguardian.com/law/2017/apr/22/dutch-arms-trafficker-to-liberia-guus-kouwenhoven-given-war-crimes-conviction" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See Dutch Arms Trafficker to Liberia Given War Crimes Conviction, The Guardian, April 22, 2017, available at https://www.theguardian.com/law/2017/apr/22/dutch-arms-trafficker-to-liberia-guus-kouwenhoven-given-war-crimes-conviction.
      3. News Source; No Author; News Agency; Hereinafter
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Cite to AFP — a news agency — even though URL is to the publication that ran the story.
          • Hereinafter uses a short form of the title.
        • ICC Prosecutors Accuse DR Congo Rebel of Witness Tampering, AFP,  November 11, 2016, [hereinafter DRC Tampering], available at http://pulse.com.gh/news/bosco-ntaganda-trial-icc-prosecutors-accuse-dr-congo-rebel-of-witness-tampering-id5745263.html.
        • ICC Prosecutors Accuse DR Congo Rebel of Witness Tampering, AFP, Nov. 11, 2016, [hereinafter DRC Tampering], available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		Prosecutors Accuse 
          		<abbr title="Democratic Republic">
          			DR 
          		</abbr>
          		Congo Rebel of Witness Tampering</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="Agence France-Presse">
          			<a href="http://www.afp.com/" class="external">
          				AFP,</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		<span class="date">
          			Nov. 11, 2016</span></span>, [hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		<abbr title="Democratic Republic of Congo">
          			DRC 
          		</abbr>
          		Tampering</span>], 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://pulse.com.gh/news/bosco-ntaganda-trial-icc-prosecutors-accuse-dr-congo-rebel-of-witness-tampering-id5745263.html" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • ICC Prosecutors Accuse DR Congo Rebel of Witness Tampering, AFP,  November 11, 2016, [hereinafter DRC Tampering], available at http://pulse.com.gh/news/bosco-ntaganda-trial-icc-prosecutors-accuse-dr-congo-rebel-of-witness-tampering-id5745263.html.
  • Periodicals

    • Consecutively Paged
      1. Consecutively Paged Periodical; Entities; Signal
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • See Marko Milanović, The Impact of the ICTY on the Former Yugoslavia: An Anticipatory Postmortem, 110 American Journal of International Law  233 (2016), available at http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/37359/1/amerjintelaw.110.2.0233.pdf.
        • See Marko Milanović, The Impact of the ICTY on the Former Yugoslavia: An Anticipatory Postmortem, 110 Am. J. Int’l L. 233 (2016), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		Marko Milanović</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		The Impact of the 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia">
          			ICTY 
          		</abbr>
          		on the Former Yugoslavia: An Anticipatory Postmortem</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		110 
          		<abbr title="American Journal of International Law">
          			<a href="http://www.asil.org/ajil.cfm" class="external">
          				Am. J. Int’l L.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		233 (<span class="date">2016</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/37359/1/amerjintelaw.110.2.0233.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See Marko Milanović, The Impact of the ICTY on the Former Yugoslavia: An Anticipatory Postmortem, 110 American Journal of International Law  233 (2016), available at http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/37359/1/amerjintelaw.110.2.0233.pdf.
      2. Consecutively Paged Periodical; Pincite to Range of Pages; Entities; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Alex Whiting is an ICC Forum invited expert, so his name is linked to his site profile.
          • Pincite to a range of pages is Coded with an en dash.
          • Since URL ends in “.pdf”, no need for a [PDF] Coding Marker.
        • Alex Whiting, In International Criminal Prosecutions, Justice Delayed Can Be Justice Delivered, 50 Harvard International Law Journal 323, 331–3 (June 2009), available at http://www.harvardilj.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/HILJ_50-2_Whiting.pdf.
        • Alex Whiting, In International Criminal Prosecutions, Justice Delayed Can Be Justice Delivered, 50 Harv. Int’l L.J. 323, 331–3 (Jun. 2009), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/whiting">
          			Alex Whiting,</a>
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		In International Criminal Prosecutions, Justice Delayed Can Be Justice Delivered</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		50 
          		<abbr title="Harvard International Law Journal">
          			<a href="http://www.harvardilj.org/" class="external">
          				Harv. Int’l L.J.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		323, 331–3 (<span class="date">Jun. 2009</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://www.harvardilj.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/HILJ_50-2_Whiting.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Alex Whiting, In International Criminal Prosecutions, Justice Delayed Can Be Justice Delivered, 50 Harvard International Law Journal 323, 331–3 (June 2009), available at http://www.harvardilj.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/HILJ_50-2_Whiting.pdf.
      3. Earlier Version of Paper Available Online; Archived; PDF; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Only an early version of the paper was found. This shows how it is cited.
          • Carsten Stahn is an ICC Forum invited expert, so his name is wrapped with a link to his profile.
          • Archive link to webcitation.org is for a PDF. [PDF] Coding Marker is used.
          • Even though the title ends in a question mark, a comma is added after the title.
        • Carsten Stahn, Between ‘Faith’ and ‘Facts’: By What Standards Should We Assess International Criminal Justice?, 25 Leiden Journal of International Law 251 (2012), earlier version (October 31, 2011), available at https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/19651/Oratie%20Stahn.pdf, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6rRkVHWDe. [PDF]
        • Carsten Stahn, Between ‘Faith’ and ‘Facts’: By What Standards Should We Assess International Criminal Justice?, 25 Leiden J. Int’l L. 251 (2012), earlier version (Oct. 31, 2011), available online, archived.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/stahn">
          			Carsten Stahn,</a>
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		Between ‘Faith’ and ‘Facts’: By What Standards Should We Assess International Criminal Justice?</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		25 
          		<abbr title="Leiden Journal of International Law">
          			<a href="http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=LJL" class="external">
          				Leiden J. Int’l L.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		251 (<span class="date">2012</span>)</span>, earlier version (<span class="date">Oct. 31, 2011</span>), 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a class="pdf" href="https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/19651/Oratie%20Stahn.pdf">
          			online,</a> 
          		<a class="pdf" href="http://www.webcitation.org/6rRkVHWDe">
          			archived.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Carsten Stahn, Between ‘Faith’ and ‘Facts’: By What Standards Should We Assess International Criminal Justice?, 25 Leiden Journal of International Law 251 (2012), earlier version (October 31, 2011), available at https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/19651/Oratie%20Stahn.pdf, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6rRkVHWDe. [PDF]
      4. Consecutively Paged Periodical; Paywall; Earlier Version Available; Coding Marker
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • See also Luke Moffett, Meaningful and Effective? Considering Victims’ Interests Through Participation at the International Criminal Court, 26 Criminal Law Forum 255 (June 2015), available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10609-015-9256-1 [PAYWALL], earlier version available at http://pure.qub.ac.uk/portal/files/15375987/foobar.pdf.
        • See also Luke Moffett, Meaningful and Effective? Considering Victims’ Interests Through Participation at the International Criminal Court, 26 Crim. L. Forum 255 (Jun. 2015), SpringerLink paywall,  earlier version online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See also 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		Luke Moffett</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Meaningful and Effective? Considering Victims’ Interests Through Participation at the International Criminal Court</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		26 
          		<abbr title="Criminal Law Forum">
          			<a href="http://www.springer.com/law/criminal/journal/10609" class="external">
          				Crim. L. Forum</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		255 (<span class="date">Jun. 2015</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		<a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10609-015-9256-1" class="external">
          			SpringerLink paywall,</a> 
          		earlier version 
          		<a href="http://pure.qub.ac.uk/portal/files/15375987/Journal_article_Meaningful_and_effective_Considering_victims_interests_through_participation_at_the_International_Criminal_Court.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See also Luke Moffett, Meaningful and Effective? Considering Victims’ Interests Through Participation at the International Criminal Court, 26 Criminal Law Forum 255 (June 2015), available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10609-015-9256-1 [PAYWALL], earlier version available at http://pure.qub.ac.uk/portal/files/15375987/foobar.pdf.
      5. Consecutively Paged Periodical; Paywall; Earlier Version; Archived; Signal; PDF; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Sometimes, research reveals an earlier version of a cited paper. This shows how both can be referenced in a citation.
          • The webcitation.org archive is to a PDF format document; because the URL doesn’t end in “.pdf”, use the [PDF] Coding Marker.
        • See Tom Buitelaar, The ICC and the Prevention of Atrocities: Criminological Perspectives, 17 Human Rights Review 286 (2016), available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12142-016-0414-6 [PAYWALL].  Earlier version: The Hague Institute for Global Justice, Working Paper 8 (April 2015), available at http://www.thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/The_ICC_and_The_Prevention_of_Atrocities.pdf, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6rRecePxw [PDF].
        • See Tom Buitelaar, The ICC and the Prevention of Atrocities: Criminological Perspectives, 17 Hum. Rts. Rev. 286 (2016), SpringerLink paywall. Earlier version: The Hague Institute for Global Justice,  Working Paper 8 (Apr. 2015), available online, archived.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		Tom Buitelaar</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		The 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		and the Prevention of Atrocities: Criminological Perspectives</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		17 
          		<abbr title="Human Rights Review">
          			<a href="http://www.springer.com/law/journal/12142" class="external">
          				Hum. Rts. Rev.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		286 (<span class="date">2016</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		<a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12142-016-0414-6" class="external">
          			SpringerLink paywall.</a> 
          	</span>
          	Earlier version: 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://www.thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.org/" class="external">
          			The Hague Institute for Global Justice,</a> 
          		Working Paper 8 (<span class="date">Apr. 2015</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://www.thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/The_ICC_and_The_Prevention_of_Atrocities.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online,</a> 
          		<a class="pdf" href="http://www.webcitation.org/6rRecePxw">
          			archived.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See Tom Buitelaar, The ICC and the Prevention of Atrocities: Criminological Perspectives, 17 Human Rights Review 286 (2016), available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12142-016-0414-6 [PAYWALL].  Earlier version: The Hague Institute for Global Justice, Working Paper 8 (April 2015), available at http://www.thehagueinstituteforglobaljustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/The_ICC_and_The_Prevention_of_Atrocities.pdf, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6rRecePxw [PDF].
      6. Consecutively Paged Periodical; Background Materials; Remark; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • As this is destined for the Background materials, the comment citation is slightly different than if it were for a footnote:
            • there is a period after the date closing parenthesis rather than a comma,
            • the notes below are not enclosed in parentheses, and
            • the online reference appears below the main citation.
          • As Dapo Akande is an ICC Forum invited expert, his name is linked to his ICC Forum profile page.
        • Dapo Akande, The Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court over Nationals of Non-Parties: Legal Basis and Limits, 1 Journal of International Criminal Justice 618 (December 1, 2003), available at https://academic.oup.com/jicj/article-abstract/1/3/618/2188874/The-Jurisdiction-of-the-International-Criminal [PAYWALL].

          [REMARK] Discusses how the ICC needs State acceptance in order for the ICC to have jurisdiction over the State; it cannot impose or create duties among these states. He also gives a variety of examples on how this is applied and how the ICC deals with official acts of non-state parties and their immunities.
        • Dapo Akande, The Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court over Nationals of Non-Parties: Legal Basis and Limits, 1 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 618 (Dec. 1, 2003). Oxford Academic paywall.

          Discusses how the ICC needs State acceptance in order for the ICC to have jurisdiction over the State; it cannot impose or create duties among these states. He also gives a variety of examples on how this is applied and how the ICC deals with official acts of non-state parties and their immunities.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/akande">
          			Dapo Akande,</a>
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		The Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court over Nationals of Non-Parties: Legal Basis and Limits, 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		1 
          		<abbr title="Journal of International Criminal Justice">
          			<a href="http://jicj.oxfordjournals.org/" class="external">
          				J. Int’l Crim. Just.</a>  
          		</abbr>
          		618 (<span class="date">Dec. 1, 2003</span>)</span>. 
          	<span class="versions">
          		<a href="https://academic.oup.com/jicj/article-abstract/1/3/618/2188874/The-Jurisdiction-of-the-International-Criminal" class="external">
          			Oxford Academic paywall.</a>  
          	</span>
          </p>
          <p class="comment">
          	Discusses how the 
          	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          		ICC 
          	</abbr>
          	needs State acceptance in order for the 
          	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          		ICC 
          	</abbr>
          	to have jurisdiction over the State; it cannot impose or create duties among these states. He also gives a variety of examples on how this is applied and how the 
          	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          		ICC 
          	</abbr>
          	deals with official acts of non-state parties and their immunities. 
          </p>
        • Dapo Akande, The Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court over Nationals of Non-Parties: Legal Basis and Limits, 1 Journal of International Criminal Justice 618 (December 1, 2003), available at https://academic.oup.com/jicj/article-abstract/1/3/618/2188874/The-Jurisdiction-of-the-International-Criminal [PAYWALL].

          [REMARK] Discusses how the ICC needs State acceptance in order for the ICC to have jurisdiction over the State; it cannot impose or create duties among these states. He also gives a variety of examples on how this is applied and how the ICC deals with official acts of non-state parties and their immunities.
    • Not Consecutively Paged
      1. Non Consecutively Paged Periodical
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Elizabeth Peet, Why is the International Criminal Court so Bad at Prosecuting War Criminals?, The Wilson Quarterly (June 15, 2015), available at http://wilsonquarterly.com/stories/why-is-the-international-criminal-court-so-bad-at-prosecuting-war-criminals/.
        • Elizabeth Peet, Why is the International Criminal Court so Bad at Prosecuting War Criminals?, Wilson Q. (Jun. 15, 2015), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Elizabeth Peet</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Why is the International Criminal Court so Bad at Prosecuting War Criminals?</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="The Wilson Quarterly">
          			<a href="https://wilsonquarterly.com/" class="external">
          				Wilson Q.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		(<span class="date">Jun. 15, 2015</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://wilsonquarterly.com/stories/why-is-the-international-criminal-court-so-bad-at-prosecuting-war-criminals/" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Elizabeth Peet, Why is the International Criminal Court so Bad at Prosecuting War Criminals?, The Wilson Quarterly (June 15, 2015), available at http://wilsonquarterly.com/stories/why-is-the-international-criminal-court-so-bad-at-prosecuting-war-criminals/.
      2. Non Consecutively Paged Periodical; Entities; Signal
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • See Mélanie Vianney-Liaud, Emerging Voices: Victim Participation in ICC and ECCC’s Proceedings, Opinio Juris (August 20, 2015), available at http://opiniojuris.org/2015/08/20/emerging-voices-victim-participation-in-icc-and-ecccs-proceedings/.
        • See Mélanie Vianney-Liaud, Emerging Voices: Victim Participation in ICC and ECCC’s Proceedings, Opinio Juris  (Aug. 20, 2015), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		Mélanie Vianney-Liaud</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Emerging Voices: Victim Participation in 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		and 
          		<abbr title="Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia">
          			ECCC</abbr>’s Proceedings</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://opiniojuris.org/" class="external">
          			<dfn title="opinion of the law">
          				Opinio Juris</dfn></a> 
          		(<span class="date">Aug. 20, 2015</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://opiniojuris.org/2015/08/20/emerging-voices-victim-participation-in-icc-and-ecccs-proceedings/" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See Mélanie Vianney-Liaud, Emerging Voices: Victim Participation in ICC and ECCC’s Proceedings, Opinio Juris (August 20, 2015), available at http://opiniojuris.org/2015/08/20/emerging-voices-victim-participation-in-icc-and-ecccs-proceedings/.
      3. Non Consecutively Paged Periodical; Signal
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • See, e.g., Sam Frizell, What Leaked Emails Reveal About Hillary Clinton’s Campaign, Time Magazine,  October 7, 2016, available at http://time.com/4523749/hillary-clinton-wikileaks-leaked-emails-john-podesta/.
        • See, e.g., Sam Frizell, What Leaked Emails Reveal About Hillary Clinton’s Campaign, Time Magazine, Oct. 7, 2016, available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See, e.g.</span>, 
          	<span class="author">
          		Sam Frizell</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		What Leaked Emails Reveal About Hillary Clinton’s Campaign</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://www.time.com/" class="external">
          			Time Magazine,</a> 
          		<span class="date">
          			Oct. 7, 2016</span></span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://time.com/4523749/hillary-clinton-wikileaks-leaked-emails-john-podesta/" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See, e.g., Sam Frizell, What Leaked Emails Reveal About Hillary Clinton’s Campaign, Time Magazine,  October 7, 2016, available at http://time.com/4523749/hillary-clinton-wikileaks-leaked-emails-john-podesta/.
      4. Non Consecutively Paged Periodical; Foreign Language Term; Signal; Coding Marker
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • [SIGNAL] See inter alia, Daniel Donovan, International Criminal Court: Successes and Failures, International Policy Digest (March 23, 2012), available at https://intpolicydigest.org/2012/03/23/international-criminal-court-successes-and-failures/.
        • See inter alia, Daniel Donovan, International Criminal Court: Successes and Failures, Int’l Pol’y Dig. (Mar. 23, 2012), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          		<dfn title="among other things">
          			inter alia</dfn></span>, 
          	<span class="author">
          		Daniel Donovan</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		International Criminal Court: Successes and Failures</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Policy Digest">
          			<a href="https://intpolicydigest.org/" class="external">
          				Int’l Pol’y Dig.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		(<span class="date">Mar. 23, 2012</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://intpolicydigest.org/2012/03/23/international-criminal-court-successes-and-failures/" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • [SIGNAL] See inter alia, Daniel Donovan, International Criminal Court: Successes and Failures, International Policy Digest (March 23, 2012), available at https://intpolicydigest.org/2012/03/23/international-criminal-court-successes-and-failures/.
  • Institutional Authors

    • With Author
      1. Multiple Authors; Draft Version; Report; Pincite; PDF; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • A report should be preceded with the [REPORT] Coding Marker.
          • Two authors are separated by an ampersand.
          • The version “Discussion Draft Version” appears after the publishing organization when it is relevant.
          • When the URL is a PDF format file but the extension of the URL is not “.pdf”, add the [PDF] Coding Marker.
          • For clarity, the pincite is preceded by “at” when it follows a number.
        • [REPORT] Dan H. Hall & Ingo Keilitz, Global Measures of Court Performance, International Framework for Court Excellence,  Discussion Draft Version 3, at 4 (November 9, 2012), available at http://www.courtexcellence.com/~/media/microsites/files/icce/global%20measures_v3_11_2012.ashx [PDF].
        • Dan H. Hall & Ingo Keilitz, Global Measures of Court Performance, International Framework for Court Excellence,  Discussion Draft Version 3, at 4 (Nov. 9, 2012), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Dan H. Hall 
          	</span>
          	&amp; 
          	<span class="author">
          		Ingo Keilitz</span>, 
          	<span class="title book">
          		Global Measures of Court Performance, 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://www.courtexcellence.com/" class="external">
          			International Framework for Court Excellence,</a> 
          		Discussion Draft Version 3, at 4 (<span class="date">Nov. 9, 2012</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a class="pdf" href="http://www.courtexcellence.com/~/media/microsites/files/icce/global%20measures_v3_11_2012.ashx">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • [REPORT] Dan H. Hall & Ingo Keilitz, Global Measures of Court Performance, International Framework for Court Excellence,  Discussion Draft Version 3, at 4 (November 9, 2012), available at http://www.courtexcellence.com/~/media/microsites/files/icce/global%20measures_v3_11_2012.ashx [PDF].
      2. Institutional Author; Multiple Authors; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • When an individual author is credited on behalf of an institution, use the individual author’s name followed by the institution prior to the title.
          • The institution name will be abbreviated in Coding if it does not begin the citation.
          • With multiple authors, the last one is preceded by an ampersand instead of a comma.
        • [REPORT] Stephen Smith Cody, Eric Stover, Mychelle Balthazard & K. Alexa Koenig, UC Berkeley Human Rights Center, The Victims’ Court?: A Study of 622 Victim Participants at the International Criminal Court (2015), available at https://www.law.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/VP_report_2015_final_full2.pdf.
        • Stephen Smith Cody, Eric Stover, Mychelle Balthazard & K. Alexa Koenig, UC Berkeley HRC, The Victims’ Court?: A Study of 622 Victim Participants at the International Criminal Court (2015), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Stephen Smith Cody</span>, 
          	<span class="author">
          		Eric Stover</span>, 
          	<span class="author">
          		Mychelle Balthazard 
          	</span>
          	&amp; 
          	<span class="author">
          		K. Alexa Koenig</span>, 
          	<abbr title="University of California at Berkeley, Human Rights Center">
          		<a href="https://www.law.berkeley.edu/research/human-rights-center/" class="external">
          			UC Berkeley HRC,</a> 
          	</abbr>
          	<span class="title book">
          		The Victims’ Court?: A Study of 622 Victim Participants at the International Criminal Court 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">2015</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.law.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/VP_report_2015_final_full2.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • [REPORT] Stephen Smith Cody, Eric Stover, Mychelle Balthazard & K. Alexa Koenig, UC Berkeley Human Rights Center, The Victims’ Court?: A Study of 622 Victim Participants at the International Criminal Court (2015), available at https://www.law.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/VP_report_2015_final_full2.pdf.
    • Without Author
      1. Institutional Author; Signal
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • See Human Rights Watch, ICC: Kenya Deputy President’s Case Ends (April 5, 2016), available at https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/04/05/icc-kenya-deputy-presidents-case-ends.
        • See Human Rights Watch, ICC: Kenya Deputy President’s Case Ends (Apr. 5, 2016), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="http://www.hrw.org/" class="external">
          			Human Rights Watch,</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>: Kenya Deputy President’s Case Ends 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">Apr. 5, 2016</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/04/05/icc-kenya-deputy-presidents-case-ends" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See Human Rights Watch, ICC: Kenya Deputy President’s Case Ends (April 5, 2016), available at https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/04/05/icc-kenya-deputy-presidents-case-ends.
      2. Background Materials; Institutional Author; Report; Archived; PDF; Date; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Check the paper carefully. If authors are listed—and sometimes they are in a footnote or acknowledgement section—use them in preference to an institutional author.
          • Use the [REPORT] Coding Marker
          • Reports are Coded much like a book.
          • The archive link is to a pdf file; because the extension is not .pdf, use the [PDF] Coding Marker.
          • Institutional author is not abbreviated.
          • Because this is for Background materials, the comment is not enclosed in parentheses.
          • Because this is for Background materials, the URLs are formatted slightly differently, although they are written identically to comment citations.
        • [REPORT] Open Society Justice Initiative, Briefing Paper: Establishing Performance Indicators for the International Criminal Court (November 2015), available at https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/briefing-icc-perforamnce-indicators-20151208.pdf, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6rRe0Bkir [PDF]. [REMARK] Admits the benefit of having performance indicator but argues that the indicators must provide a comprehensive view on ICC’s performance rather than ending up providing a list of data; also argues that it be set-up by the ICC itself after hearing voices outside the court.
        • Open Society Justice Initiative, Briefing Paper: Establishing Performance Indicators for the International Criminal Court (Nov. 2015). Available online, archived.

          Admits the benefit of having performance indicator but argues that the indicators must provide a comprehensive view on ICC’s performance rather than ending up providing a list of data; also argues that it be set-up by the ICC itself after hearing voices outside the court.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/about/programs/open-society-justice-initiative" class="external">
          			Open Society Justice Initiative,</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="title book">
          		Briefing Paper: Establishing Performance Indicators for the International Criminal Court 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">Nov. 2015</span>)</span>. 
          	<span class="versions">
          		Available 
          		<a href="https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/briefing-icc-perforamnce-indicators-20151208.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online,</a> 
          		<a class="pdf" href="http://www.webcitation.org/6rRe0Bkir">
          			archived.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
          <p class="comment">
          	Admits the benefit of having performance indicator but argues that the indicators must provide a comprehensive view on 
          	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          		ICC</abbr>’s performance rather than ending up providing a list of data; also argues that it be set-up by the 
          	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          		ICC 
          	</abbr>
          	itself after hearing voices outside the court. 
          </p>
        • [REPORT] Open Society Justice Initiative, Briefing Paper: Establishing Performance Indicators for the International Criminal Court (November 2015), available at https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/briefing-icc-perforamnce-indicators-20151208.pdf, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6rRe0Bkir [PDF]. [REMARK] Admits the benefit of having performance indicator but argues that the indicators must provide a comprehensive view on ICC’s performance rather than ending up providing a list of data; also argues that it be set-up by the ICC itself after hearing voices outside the court.
      3. Institutional Author; Report; Pincite; Coding Marker
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • [REPORT] American Bar Association, Perceptions of the U.S. Justice System 11 (1999), available at https://www.americanbar.org/content/foobar/authcheckdam.pdf.
        • American Bar Association, Perceptions of the U.S. Justice System 11 (1999), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="https://www.americanbar.org/" class="external">
          			American Bar Association</a></span>, 
          	<span class="title book">
          		Perceptions of the 
          		<abbr title="United States">
          			U.S. 
          		</abbr>
          		Justice System 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		11 (<span class="date">1999</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publishing/abanews/1269460858_20_1_1_7_upload_file.authcheckdam.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a>  
          	</span>
          </p>
          
        • [REPORT] American Bar Association, Perceptions of the U.S. Justice System 11 (1999), available at https://www.americanbar.org/content/foobar/authcheckdam.pdf.
  • Books

    • Alone
      1. Book—Not a Collection; Pincite; Link Not Found; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Use the [BOOK] Coding Marker before a citation to a book.
          • Pincite follows the title without preceding comma.
          • No publisher information is necessary unless it would be ambiguous without it.
          • The edition is not necessary if this is the first edition.
          • Use the [NOTFOUND] Coding Marker if an online version of the source cannot be found.
        • [BOOK] David Bosco, Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics 3 (2014). [NOTFOUND]
        • David Bosco, Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics 3 (2014).

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		David Bosco</span>, 
          	<span class="title book">
          		Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		3 (<span class="date">2014</span>)</span>. 
          </p>
        • [BOOK] David Bosco, Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics 3 (2014). [NOTFOUND]
      2. Book—Not a Collection; Signal; Link Not Found; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Use the [NOTFOUND] Coding Marker if an online version of the source cannot be found.
        • See generally [BOOK] Richard A. Wilson, Writing History in International Trials (May 2011). [NOTFOUND]
        • See generally Richard A. Wilson, Writing History in International Trials (May 2011).

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See generally 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		Richard A. Wilson</span>, 
          	<span class="title book">
          		Writing History in International Trials 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">May 2011</span>)</span>. 
          </p>
        • See generally [BOOK] Richard A. Wilson, Writing History in International Trials (May 2011). [NOTFOUND]
    • Collection of Articles
      1. Book—Collection; Multiple Authors; Pincite; Link Not Found; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Note that the pincite to page 1259 comes immediately after the title and is not preceded by a comma.
          • Two authors are separated by an ampersand.
          • The author of the book is an ICC Forum invited expert, so his name is wrapped in a link to his profile page.
          • The [NOTFOUND] Code Marker is used to communicate that a link was researched but not found.
        • [BOOK] Elizabeth Evenson & Alison Smith, Completion, Legacy and Complementarity at the ICC, in The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court 1259 (Carsten Stahn ed., 2015). [NOTFOUND]
        • Elizabeth Evenson & Alison Smith, Completion, Legacy and Complementarity at the ICC, in The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court 1259 (Carsten Stahn ed., 2015).

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Elizabeth Evenson 
          	</span>
          	&amp; 
          	<span class="author">
          		Alison Smith</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Completion, Legacy and Complementarity at the 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr></span>, 
          	<em>
          		in 
          	</em>
          	<span class="book">
          		The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court 
          	</span>
          	1259 
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="author"><a href="/users/stahn">Carsten Stahn</a></span>
          		ed., 
          		<span class="date">
          			2015</span>)</span>. 
          </p>
          
        • [BOOK] Elizabeth Evenson & Alison Smith, Completion, Legacy and Complementarity at the ICC, in The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court 1259 (Carsten Stahn ed., 2015). [NOTFOUND]
      2. Article; Book—Collection; Link Not Found; Entities; Coding Marker
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • [BOOK] Christine Schwöbel, The Market and Marketing Culture of International Criminal Law, in Critical Approaches to International Criminal Law—An Introduction 264 (Christine Schwöbel ed., 2014). [NOTFOUND]
        • Christine Schwöbel, The Market and Marketing Culture of International Criminal Law, in Critical Approaches to International Criminal Law—An Introduction 264 (Christine Schwöbel ed., 2014).

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Christine Schw&ouml;bel</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		The Market and Marketing Culture of International Criminal Law</span>, 
          	<em>
          		in 
          	</em>
          	<span class="book">
          		Critical Approaches to International Criminal Law&mdash;An Introduction 
          	</span>
          	264 
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="author">Christine Schw&ouml;bel</span>
          		ed., 
          		<span class="date">
          			2014</span>)</span>. 
          </p>
        • [BOOK] Christine Schwöbel, The Market and Marketing Culture of International Criminal Law, in Critical Approaches to International Criminal Law—An Introduction 264 (Christine Schwöbel ed., 2014). [NOTFOUND]
      3. Book—Collection; Multiple Authors; Signal; Pincite; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • [BOOK] Coding Marker should be added.
          • Last author in a series separated with ampersand.
          • Recognized signal is italicized during Coding.
          • Since URL ends in “.pdf”, no need for a [PDF] Coding Marker.
          • Note that the pincite to page 6 comes immediately after the title and is not preceded by a comma.
        • See [BOOK] Chiyuki Aoi, Cedric de Coning & Ramesh Thakur, Eds., Unintended Consequences of Peacekeeping Operations 6 (2007), available at https://collections.unu.edu/eserv/UNU:2483/pdf9789280811421.pdf.
        • See Chiyuki Aoi, Cedric de Coning & Ramesh Thakur, Eds., Unintended Consequences of Peacekeeping Operations 6 (2007), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		Chiyuki Aoi</span>, 
          	<span class="author">
          		Cedric de Coning 
          	</span>
          	&amp; 
          	<span class="author">
          		Ramesh Thakur</span>, Eds., 
          	<span class="title book">
          		Unintended Consequences of Peacekeeping Operations 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          	6 
          		(<span class="date">2007</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://collections.unu.edu/eserv/UNU:2483/pdf9789280811421.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See [BOOK] Chiyuki Aoi, Cedric de Coning & Ramesh Thakur, Eds., Unintended Consequences of Peacekeeping Operations 6 (2007), available at https://collections.unu.edu/eserv/UNU:2483/pdf9789280811421.pdf.
      4. Book—Collection; Multiple Editors; Hereinafter; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Christian De Vos and Carsten Stahn are ICC Forum invited experts, so their names are wrapped with links to their profiles.
          • “hereinafter” references come after the date and before the link to the available URL.
        • [BOOK] Christian De Vos, Sara Kendall & Carsten Stahn, Eds., Contested Justice: The Politics and Practices of International Criminal Court Interventions (2015) [hereinafter Contested Justice], available at https://kar.kent.ac.uk/53524/1/Contested%20Justice%20SK%20PDF.pdf.
        • Christian De Vos, Sara Kendall & Carsten Stahn, Eds., Contested Justice: The Politics and Practices of International Criminal Court Interventions (2015) [hereinafter Contested Justice], available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/de-vos">
          			Christian De Vos,</a>
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		Sara Kendall 
          	</span>
          	&amp; 
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/stahn">
          			Carsten Stahn,</a>
          	</span>
          	Eds., 
          	<span class="title book">
          		Contested Justice: The Politics and Practices of International Criminal Court Interventions 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">2015</span>) 
          	</span>
          	[hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		Contested Justice</span>], 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://kar.kent.ac.uk/53524/1/Contested%20Justice%20SK%20PDF.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • [BOOK] Christian De Vos, Sara Kendall & Carsten Stahn, Eds., Contested Justice: The Politics and Practices of International Criminal Court Interventions (2015) [hereinafter Contested Justice], available at https://kar.kent.ac.uk/53524/1/Contested%20Justice%20SK%20PDF.pdf.
  • Websites

    • Generally
    • With Author
      1. Webpage; Author; Date
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Last Visited reference not necessary for dated source.
        • Michael Broache, Beyond Deterrence: The ICC Effect in the OTP, openDemocracy (February 19, 2015), available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/openglobalrights/michael-broache/beyond-deterrence-icc-effect-in-drc.
        • Michael Broache, Beyond Deterrence: The ICC Effect in the OTP, openDemocracy  (Feb. 19, 2015), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Michael Broache</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Beyond Deterrence: The 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		Effect in the 
          		<abbr title="Office of the Prosecutor">
          			OTP</abbr></span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://www.opendemocracy.net/" class="external">
          			openDemocracy</a> 
          		(<span class="date">Feb. 19, 2015</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://www.opendemocracy.net/openglobalrights/michael-broache/beyond-deterrence-icc-effect-in-drc" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Michael Broache, Beyond Deterrence: The ICC Effect in the OTP, openDemocracy (February 19, 2015), available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/openglobalrights/michael-broache/beyond-deterrence-icc-effect-in-drc.
      2. Webpage; Author; No Date; Last Visited
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Frank Newport, Presidential Election 2016: Key Indicators, Gallup, available at http://www.gallup.com/poll/189299/presidential-election-2016-key-indicators.aspx (last visited July 3, 2017).
        • Frank Newport, Presidential Election 2016: Key Indicators, Gallup, available online (last visited Jul. 3, 2017).

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Frank Newport</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Presidential Election 2016: Key Indicators</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://www.gallup.com/" class="external">
          			Gallup,</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://www.gallup.com/poll/189299/presidential-election-2016-key-indicators.aspx" class="external">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Jul. 3, 2017)</span>. 
          </p>
        • Frank Newport, Presidential Election 2016: Key Indicators, Gallup, available at http://www.gallup.com/poll/189299/presidential-election-2016-key-indicators.aspx (last visited July 3, 2017).
    • Without Author
      1. Webpage; No Author; No Date; Last Visited; Hereinafter
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Last visited is required for a web page with no date.
        • Victims, International Criminal Court, [hereinafter Victims], available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/about/victims (last visited Jul. 1, 2017).
        • Victims, ICC, [hereinafter Victims], available online (last visited July 1, 2017).

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		Victims</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr></span>, 
          	[hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		Victims</span>],
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/about/victims" class="external">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited July 1, 2017). 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Victims, International Criminal Court, [hereinafter Victims], available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/about/victims (last visited Jul. 1, 2017).
      2. Webpage; No Author; No Date; Last Visited
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Last visited is required for a web page with no date.
        • Resource Center on Complementarity Monitoring, International Nuremberg Principles Academy, available at https://www.nurembergacademy.org/projects/detail/resource-center-on-complementarity-monitoring-13/ (last visited June 25, 2017).
        • Resource Center on Complementarity Monitoring, Int’l Nuremberg Principles Acad., available online (last visited Jun. 25, 2017).

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		Resource Center on Complementarity Monitoring</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Nuremberg Principles Academy">
          			<a href="https://www.nurembergacademy.org/" class="external">
          				Int’l Nuremberg Principles Acad.,</a> 
          		</abbr>
          	</span>
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.nurembergacademy.org/projects/detail/resource-center-on-complementarity-monitoring-13/" class="external">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Jun. 25, 2017)</span>. 
          </p>
        • Resource Center on Complementarity Monitoring, International Nuremberg Principles Academy, available at https://www.nurembergacademy.org/projects/detail/resource-center-on-complementarity-monitoring-13/ (last visited June 25, 2017).
      3. Webpage; No Author; No Date; Last Visited
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • About, Transitional Justice Research Collaborative, available at http://transitionaljusticedata.com/about (last visited December 6, 2016).
        • About, Transitional Just. Research Collaborative, available online (last visited Dec. 6, 2016).

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		About</span>, 
          	<abbr title="Transitional Justice Research Collaborative">
          		<a href="http://transitionaljusticedata.com/" class="external">
          			Transitional Just. Research Collaborative,</a> 
          	</abbr>
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://transitionaljusticedata.com/about" class="external">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Dec. 6, 2016)</span>. 
          </p>
        • About, Transitional Justice Research Collaborative, available at http://transitionaljusticedata.com/about (last visited December 6, 2016).
      4. Website as a Whole; No Author; No Date; Last Visited
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Coalition for the International Criminal Court, available at http://www.coalitionfortheicc.org/ (last visited Dec. 12, 2016).
        • Coalition for the International Criminal Court, available online (last visited Dec. 12, 2016).

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		Coalition for the International Criminal Court</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="http://www.coalitionfortheicc.org/" class="external">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Dec. 12, 2016)</span>. 
          </p>
        • Coalition for the International Criminal Court, available at http://www.coalitionfortheicc.org/ (last visited Dec. 12, 2016).
      5. Webpage; No Date; No Author; Last Visited
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Data Collection Strategies II: Qualitative Research, California State University Long Beach,  available at https://web.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm (last visited Jul. 1, 2017).
        • Data Collection Strategies II: Qualitative Research, Cal. St. U. Long Beach, available online (last visited Jul. 1, 2017).

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		Data Collection Strategies II: Qualitative Research</span>, 
          	<abbr title="California State University Long Beach">
          		<a href="https://web.csulb.edu/" class="external">
          			Cal. St. U. Long Beach,</a> 
          	</abbr>
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://web.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm" class="external">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Jul. 1, 2017)</span>. 
          </p>
        • Data Collection Strategies II: Qualitative Research, California State University Long Beach,  available at https://web.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm (last visited Jul. 1, 2017).
      6. Webpage; No Author; Date; Hereinafter
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Last Visited reference not necessary for dated source.
          • Hereinafter uses a short form of the long title; the question mark following the short title helps preserve the intention of the full title.
          • Even though the title ends in a question mark, the title is followed by a comma.
          • Omit a preceding comma when hereinafter brackets follow a closing parenthesis.
        • Is Enough Being Done to Protect ICC Witnesses?, Global Justice (May 18, 2015) [hereinafter Enough Being Done?], available at https://ciccglobaljustice.wordpress.com/2015/05/18/is-enough-being-done-to-protect-icc-witnesses/.
        • Is Enough Being Done to Protect ICC Witnesses?, Global Just. (May 18, 2015) [hereinafter Enough Being Done?], available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		Is Enough Being Done to Protect 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		Witnesses?</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="Global Justice">
          			<a href="https://ciccglobaljustice.wordpress.com/" class="external">
          				Global Just.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		(<span class="date">May 18, 2015</span>)</span> [hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		Enough Being Done?</span>], 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://ciccglobaljustice.wordpress.com/2015/05/18/is-enough-being-done-to-protect-icc-witnesses/" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Is Enough Being Done to Protect ICC Witnesses?, Global Justice (May 18, 2015) [hereinafter Enough Being Done?], available at https://ciccglobaljustice.wordpress.com/2015/05/18/is-enough-being-done-to-protect-icc-witnesses/.
      7. Webpage; Article in Online Encyclopædia; No Author; No Date; Last Visited
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • International Criminal Court, Encyclopædia Britannica,  available at https://www.britannica.com/topic/International-Criminal-Court (last visited Dec. 13, 2016).
        • International Criminal Court, Encyclo. Britannica, available online (last visited Dec. 13, 2016).

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		International Criminal Court</span>, 
          	<abbr title="Encyclopædia Britannica">
          		<a href="https://www.britannica.com/" class="external">
          			Encyclo. Britannica,</a> 
          	</abbr>
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.britannica.com/topic/International-Criminal-Court" class="external">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Dec. 13, 2016)</span>. 
          </p>
        • International Criminal Court, Encyclopædia Britannica,  available at https://www.britannica.com/topic/International-Criminal-Court (last visited Dec. 13, 2016).
    • Online Videos
      1. YouTube; Author; Date
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • In this example, “Avi Rubin” is part of the title and the author is “TED-Ed”.
        • TED-Ed, All your devices can be hacked—Avi Rubin, YouTube (June 12, 2013), available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHHCvcCUOWU.
        • TED-Ed, All your devices can be hacked—Avi Rubin, YouTube  (Jun. 12, 2013), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		TED-Ed</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		All your devices can be hacked—Avi Rubin</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="http://youtube.com/" class="external">
          			YouTube</a> 
          		(<span class="date">Jun. 12, 2013</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHHCvcCUOWU" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • TED-Ed, All your devices can be hacked—Avi Rubin, YouTube (June 12, 2013), available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHHCvcCUOWU.
      2. Vimeo; Author; Date; Pincite to Time
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Benjy Steinberg, The Prosecutor and the Paramount Chief, Vimeo, at 5:51 (March 26, 2015), available at https://vimeo.com/123370449/bd99df4c6a.
        • Benjy Steinberg, The Prosecutor and the Paramount Chief, Vimeo, at 5:51 (Mar. 26, 2015), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Benjy Steinberg</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		The Prosecutor and the Paramount Chief</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<a href="https://vimeo.com/" class="external">
          			Vimeo,</a> 
          	</span> at 5:51
          	(<span class="date">Mar. 26, 2015</span>), 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://vimeo.com/123370449/bd99df4c6a" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Benjy Steinberg, The Prosecutor and the Paramount Chief, Vimeo, at 5:51 (March 26, 2015), available at https://vimeo.com/123370449/bd99df4c6a.
      3. YouTube; Press Conference
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Press Conference, Michael Masutha, South African Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, Briefing on South Africa’s Withdrawal from the ICC, YouTube (October 21, 2016), available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4OhqA6SaZw.
        • Press Conference, Michael Masutha, South African Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, Briefing on South Africa’s Withdrawal from the ICC, YouTube  (Oct. 21, 2016), available online.

        • <p>
          	Press Conference, 
          	<span class="author">
          		Michael Masutha</span>, South African Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Briefing on South Africa’s Withdrawal from the 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC, 
          		</abbr>
          	</span>
          	<a href="http://youtube.com/" class="external">
          		YouTube</a> 
          	(<span class="date">Oct. 21, 2016</span>), 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4OhqA6SaZw" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Press Conference, Michael Masutha, South African Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, Briefing on South Africa’s Withdrawal from the ICC, YouTube (October 21, 2016), available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4OhqA6SaZw.
  • Treaties

    • Generally
        • Notes
          • Special shortcodes can be used for some treaties, including the Rome Statute and the Genocide Convention. See Shortcode and the list below.
    • Shortcodes
      1. Shortcode; Rome Statute; Pincite
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • A citation to Rome Statute is expanded to a full citation during Coding.
          • Cites to articles are wrapped with special hover boxes that display the text of the article.
        • Rome Statute, Art. 71.
        • Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Adopted by the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, Jul. 17, 1998, UN Doc. A/CONF.183/9 [hereinafter Rome Statute], Art. 71, available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		<a href="/rome-statute">
          			Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court,</a>
          	</span>
          	Adopted by the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, 
          	<span class="date">
          		Jul. 17, 1998</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="United Nations">
          			UN 
          		</abbr>
          		Doc. A/CONF.183/9 
          	</span>
          	[hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		<cite>
          			Rome Statute</cite></span>], 
          	<a href="/rome-statute#Article71" rel="/sites/default/files/fragments/rome_statute/article_71.html" title="Rome Statute &amp;mdash; Article 71">
          		Art. 71,</a>
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="/rome-statute">
          			online</a>. 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Rome Statute, Art. 71.
      2. Shortcode; Genocide Convention; Pincite
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • A citation to Genocide Convention is expanded to a full citation during Coding.
          • Cites to articles are wrapped with special hover boxes that display the text of the article.
        • Genocide Convention, Art. II
        • Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, art. II, Dec. 9 1948, S. Exec. Doc. O, 81-1 (1949), 78 U.N.T.S. 277 [hereinafter Genocide Convention], available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		<a href="/genocide-convention">
          			Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,</a>
          	</span>
          	<a href="/genocide-convention#Article2" title="Genocide Convention &mdash; Article 2">
          		art. II,</a>
          	<span class="citation">
          		<span class="date">
          			Dec. 9 1948</span>, S. Exec. Doc. O, 81-1 (<span class="date">1949</span>), 78 
          		<abbr title="United Nations Treaty Series">
          			<a href="http://treaties.un.org/pages/UNTSOnline.aspx?id=1" class="external">
          				U.N.T.S.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		277 
          	</span>
          	[hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		<cite>
          			Genocide Convention</cite></span>], 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="/genocide-convention">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Genocide Convention, Art. II
      3. Shortcode; Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties; Pincite
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • A citation to Vienna Convention is expanded to a full citation during Coding.
        • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Art. 31.
        • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, art. 31, May 23, 1969, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331, available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties</span>, art. 31, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<span class="date">
          			May 23, 1969</span>, 1155 
          		<abbr title="United Nations Treaty Series">
          			<a href="https://treaties.un.org/pages/UNTSOnline.aspx?id=1" class="external">
          				U.N.T.S.</a> 
          		</abbr>
          		331</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a class="pdf" href="/media/background/darfur/1969-05-23_Vienna_Convention_on_the_Law_of_Treaties.pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Art. 31.
    • Others
  • ICC and ASP

    • Generally
        • Notes
          • The titles of ICC reports are not rendered in small caps.
    • Court Documents
      1. ICC Court Document; Emphasis Added; Hereinafter
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • European date forms, where the day precedes the month, are permitted in titles that use them.
          • The title is the case heading, not the long description of the document.
          • Citation to the Case Number immediately follows the title.
          • Omit a preceding comma when hereinafter brackets follow a closing parenthesis.
        • The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda, Case No. ICC-01/04–02/06, Joint Submissions in Accordance with the “Order Scheduling a Status Conference and Setting a Provisional Agenda” Issued on 21 July 2014 (August 14, 2014) (emphasis added) [hereinafter Joint Submissions], available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/CourtRecords/CR2014_07077.PDF.
        • The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda, Case No. ICC-01/04–02/06, Joint Submissions in Accordance with the “Order Scheduling a Status Conference and Setting a Provisional Agenda” Issued on 21 July 2014 (Aug. 14, 2014) (emphasis added) [hereinafter Joint Submissions], available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		<cite>
          			The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda</cite></span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		Case No. 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>-01/04–02/06</span>, Joint Submissions in Accordance with the “Order Scheduling a Status Conference and Setting a Provisional Agenda” Issued on 21 July 2014 
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">Aug. 14, 2014</span>) 
          	</span>
          	(emphasis added) [hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		Joint Submissions</span>], 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/CourtRecords/CR2014_07077.PDF" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda, Case No. ICC-01/04–02/06, Joint Submissions in Accordance with the “Order Scheduling a Status Conference and Setting a Provisional Agenda” Issued on 21 July 2014 (August 14, 2014) (emphasis added) [hereinafter Joint Submissions], available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/CourtRecords/CR2014_07077.PDF.
      2. ICC Court Document; Pincite
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • In the Case of the Prosecutor v. Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi, ICC-01/11–01/11 OA 6, Judgment on the appeal of Mr. Abdullah Al-Senussi against the decision of Pre-Trial Chamber I of 11 October 2013 entitled “Decision on the admissibility of the case against Abdullah Al-Senussi,” para. 94 (July 24, 2014), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/CourtRecords/CR2014_06755.PDF.
        • In the Case of the Prosecutor v. Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi, ICC-01/11–01/11 OA 6, Judgment on the appeal of Mr. Abdullah Al-Senussi against the decision of Pre-Trial Chamber I of 11 October 2013 entitled “Decision on the admissibility of the case against Abdullah Al-Senussi,” ¶ 94 (Jul. 24, 2014), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		<cite>
          			In the Case of the Prosecutor v. Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi</cite></span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>-01/11–01/11 OA 6</span>, Judgment on the appeal of Mr. Abdullah Al-Senussi against the decision of Pre-Trial Chamber I of 11 October 2013 entitled “Decision on the admissibility of the case against Abdullah Al-Senussi,” 
          	<span class="citation">
          		¶ 94 (<span class="date">Jul. 24, 2014</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/CourtRecords/CR2014_06755.PDF" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • In the Case of the Prosecutor v. Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi, ICC-01/11–01/11 OA 6, Judgment on the appeal of Mr. Abdullah Al-Senussi against the decision of Pre-Trial Chamber I of 11 October 2013 entitled “Decision on the admissibility of the case against Abdullah Al-Senussi,” para. 94 (July 24, 2014), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/CourtRecords/CR2014_06755.PDF.
    • Case Information
      1. ICC Case Information Sheet; Date is Last Update; Last Visited
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • International Criminal Court, Case Information Sheet: The Prosecutor v. Dominic Ongwen, Case No. ICC-02/04-01/15 (January 2017), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/uganda/ongwen/Documents/OngwenEng.pdf (last visited Jul. 15, 2017).
        • International Criminal Court, Case Information Sheet: The Prosecutor v. Dominic Ongwen, Case No. ICC-02/04-01/15 (Jan. 2017), available online (last visited Jul. 15, 2017).

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		International Criminal Court</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Case Information Sheet: 
          		<cite>
          			The Prosecutor v. Dominic Ongwen</cite></span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		Case No. 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>-02/04-01/15 (<span class="date">Jan. 2017</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/uganda/ongwen/Documents/OngwenEng.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Jul. 15, 2017)</span>. 
          </p>
        • International Criminal Court, Case Information Sheet: The Prosecutor v. Dominic Ongwen, Case No. ICC-02/04-01/15 (January 2017), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/uganda/ongwen/Documents/OngwenEng.pdf (last visited Jul. 15, 2017).
      2. ICC Case Information Sheet; Date is Last Update; Entities; Last Visited
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • International Criminal Court, Case Information Sheet: The Prosecutor v. Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé, Case No. ICC-02/11-01/15 (January 2016), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/cdi/gbagbo-goude/Documents/LaurentGbagboandBleGoudeEng.pdf (last visited Jul. 15, 2017).
        • International Criminal Court, Case Information Sheet: The Prosecutor v. Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé, Case No. ICC-02/11-01/15 (Jan. 2016), available online (last visited Jul. 15, 2017).

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		International Criminal Court</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Case Information Sheet: 
          		<cite>
          			The Prosecutor v. Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé</cite></span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		Case No. 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>-02/11-01/15 (<span class="date">Jan. 2016</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/cdi/gbagbo-goude/Documents/LaurentGbagboandBleGoudeEng.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Jul. 15, 2017)</span>. 
          </p>
        • International Criminal Court, Case Information Sheet: The Prosecutor v. Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé, Case No. ICC-02/11-01/15 (January 2016), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/cdi/gbagbo-goude/Documents/LaurentGbagboandBleGoudeEng.pdf (last visited Jul. 15, 2017).
    • ICC Reports
      1. ICC Report; Hereinafter
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Omit a preceding comma when hereinafter brackets follow a closing parenthesis.
        • International Criminal Court, Second Court’s Report on the Development of Performance Indicators for the International Criminal Court (November 11, 2016) [hereinafter Second Report], available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/itemsDocuments/ICC-Second-Court_report-on-indicators.pdf.
        • International Criminal Court, Second Court’s Report on the Development of Performance Indicators for the International Criminal Court (Nov. 11, 2016) [hereinafter Second Report], available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		International Criminal Court,
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		Second Court’s Report on the Development of Performance Indicators for the International Criminal Court 
          	</span>
          	(<span class="date">Nov. 11, 2016</span>) [hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		Second Report</span>], 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/itemsDocuments/ICC-Second-Court_report-on-indicators.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • International Criminal Court, Second Court’s Report on the Development of Performance Indicators for the International Criminal Court (November 11, 2016) [hereinafter Second Report], available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/itemsDocuments/ICC-Second-Court_report-on-indicators.pdf.
      2. Institutional Author; Title; Report
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • ICC Reports do not render the title in small caps.
        • Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court, Report on Preliminary Examination Activities 2016 (November 14, 2016), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/161114-otp-rep-PE_ENG.pdf.
        • Office of the Prosecutor, ICC, Report on Preliminary Examination Activities 2016 (Nov. 14, 2016), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Office of the Prosecutor,</span> <abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Report on Preliminary Examination Activities 2016 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">Nov. 14, 2016</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/161114-otp-rep-PE_ENG.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court, Report on Preliminary Examination Activities 2016 (November 14, 2016), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/161114-otp-rep-PE_ENG.pdf.
      3. Institutional Author; Signal
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • See, e.g., Assembly of States Parties, Report of the Court on Cooperation, ICC-ASP/15/9 (October 11, 2016), available at https://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/ASP15/ICC-ASP-15-9-ENG.pdf.
        • See, e.g., Assembly of States Parties, Report of the Court on Cooperation, ICC-ASP/15/9 (Oct. 11, 2016), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See, e.g.</span>, 
          	<span class="author">
          		Assembly of States Parties</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Report of the Court on Cooperation</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>-<abbr title="Assembly of States Parties">ASP</abbr>/15/9 (<span class="date">Oct. 11, 2016</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/ASP15/ICC-ASP-15-9-ENG.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See, e.g., Assembly of States Parties, Report of the Court on Cooperation, ICC-ASP/15/9 (October 11, 2016), available at https://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/ASP15/ICC-ASP-15-9-ENG.pdf.
      4. Institutional Author; Pincite
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • The source uses paragraph numbers, so the pincite is to that. The page number, referring to the same paragraph, is added to help the user quickly find the referenced paragraph in this long document.
          • A space follows the ¶ marker; the symbol ¶ will be substituted for the word “para.” in a citation.
        • Assembly of States Parties, Strengthening the International Criminal Court and the Assembly of States Parties, ICC-ASP/13/Res.5 (December 17, 2014), available online, at Annex I, para. 7(b) p.47.
        • Assembly of States Parties, Strengthening the International Criminal Court and the Assembly of States Parties, ICC-ASP/13/Res.5 (Dec. 17, 2014), available online, at Annex I, ¶ 7(b) p.47.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Assembly of States Parties</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Strengthening the International Criminal Court and the Assembly of States Parties</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>-<abbr title="Assembly of States Parties">ASP</abbr>/13/Res.5 (<span class="date">Dec. 17, 2014</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/Resolutions/ASP13/ICC-ASP-13-Res5-ENG.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online,</a> 
          	</span>
          	at Annex I, ¶ 7(b) p.47. 
          </p>
        • Assembly of States Parties, Strengthening the International Criminal Court and the Assembly of States Parties, ICC-ASP/13/Res.5 (December 17, 2014), available online, at Annex I, para. 7(b) p.47.
    • ICC Other Documents
      1. Institutional Author; ICC OTP Policy Paper; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • The author is the Office of the Prosecutor.
          • Since the URL ends with “.pdf”, no [PDF] Coding Marker is necessary.
        • Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court, Policy Paper on Preliminary Examinations (November 2013), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/OTP-Policy_Paper_Preliminary_Examinations_2013-ENG.pdf.
        • Office of the Prosecutor, ICC, Policy Paper on Preliminary Examinations (Nov. 2013), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		Office of the Prosecutor</span>, 
          			ICC, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Policy Paper on Preliminary Examinations 
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">Nov. 2013</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/OTP-Policy_Paper_Preliminary_Examinations_2013-ENG.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court, Policy Paper on Preliminary Examinations (November 2013), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/OTP-Policy_Paper_Preliminary_Examinations_2013-ENG.pdf.
      2. Shortcode; ICC Rules of Procedure and Evidence (2013)
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • A citation to 2013 RPE is expanded to a full citation during Coding.
        • 2013 RPE, Rule 48.
        • International Criminal Court, Rules of Procedure and Evidence, ICC-ASP/1/3, R. 48 (2013), available online, archived.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		International Criminal Court</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Rules of Procedure and Evidence</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>-<abbr title="Assembly of States Parties">ASP</abbr>/1/3, R. 48 (<span class="date">2013</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a class="pdf" href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/PIDS/legal-texts/RulesProcedureEvidenceEng.pdf">
          			online,</a> 
          		<a class="pdf" href="/media/background/general/2013_ICC_Rules_of_Procedure_and_Evidence_(English).pdf">
          			archived.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • 2013 RPE, Rule 48.
      3. ICC Document with Author; ICC Document Number; Signal; Pincite
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • When an individual author is credited on behalf of an institution, use the individual author’s name followed by — in this case — the conference, prior to the title.
          • This is an ICC document that came from a particular conference: conference listed first followed by ICC document reference.
          • Pincite has the “at” prepended to avoid confusion with the numbers that precede it.
          • Recognized signal “See e.g.,” is italicized during Coding.
        • See e.g., David Tolbert, Stocktaking: Peace and Justice, Review Conference of the Rome Statute, ICC Doc. RC/ST/PJ/M.6, at 8 (June 1, 2010), available at ttps://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/RC2010/Stocktaking/RC-ST-PJ-M.6-ENG.pdf.
        • See e.g., David Tolbert, Stocktaking: Peace and Justice, Review Conference of the Rome Statute, ICC Doc. RC/ST/PJ/M.6, at 8 (Jun. 1, 2010), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See e.g.</span>, 
          	<span class="author">
          		David Tolbert</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Stocktaking: Peace and Justice</span>, Review Conference of the 
          	<cite>
          		Rome Statute</cite>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		Doc. RC/ST/PJ/M.6, at 8 (<span class="date">Jun. 1, 2010</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/RC2010/Stocktaking/RC-ST-PJ-M.6-ENG.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See e.g., David Tolbert, Stocktaking: Peace and Justice, Review Conference of the Rome Statute, ICC Doc. RC/ST/PJ/M.6, at 8 (June 1, 2010), available at ttps://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/RC2010/Stocktaking/RC-ST-PJ-M.6-ENG.pdf.
      4. ICC Press Release
        • You Write
          Result
          Code
        • Press Release, ICC, ICC Pre-Trial Chamber I Decides that the Al-Senussi Case is to Proceed in Libya and is Inadmissible Before the ICC (October 11, 2013), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr953.
        • Press Release, ICC, ICC Pre-Trial Chamber I Decides that the Al-Senussi Case is to Proceed in Libya and is Inadmissible Before the ICC (Oct. 11, 2013), available online.

        • <p>
          	Press Release, 
          	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          		ICC</abbr>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		Pre-Trial Chamber I Decides that the Al-Senussi Case is to Proceed in Libya and is Inadmissible Before the 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          	</span>
          	<span class="citation">
          		(<span class="date">Oct. 11, 2013</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr953" class="external">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Press Release, ICC, ICC Pre-Trial Chamber I Decides that the Al-Senussi Case is to Proceed in Libya and is Inadmissible Before the ICC (October 11, 2013), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr953.
      5. ICC Webpage; Title; Remark; Last Visited; Signal; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • An exception to the normal rule of converting titles to mixed case for headline style is when the title refers to the main page of a website, as this one does. In this case, leave the title in the original source’s case.
        • See Situations under investigation, International Criminal Court, available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/pages/situations.aspx (last visited November 15, 2016). [REMARK] (The only non-African country that the ICC is currently investigating is Georgia).
        • See Situations under investigation, ICC, available online (last visited Nov. 15, 2016).

          (The only non-African country that the ICC is currently investigating is Georgia).

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		Situations under investigation</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC, 
          		</abbr>
          	</span>
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/pages/situations.aspx" class="external">
          			online</a> 
          	</span>
          	<span class="lastvisit">
          		(last visited Nov. 15, 2016)</span>. 
          </p>
          <p class="blockquote">
          	(The only non-African country that the 
          	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          		ICC 
          	</abbr>
          	is currently investigating is Georgia). 
          </p>
        • See Situations under investigation, International Criminal Court, available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/pages/situations.aspx (last visited November 15, 2016). [REMARK] (The only non-African country that the ICC is currently investigating is Georgia).
  • UN

    • Generally
        • Notes
          • Bluebook rule 21.7.3(a): “Reports from U.N. organs, committees, or the Secretariat should include the name of the body and the subcommittee, if any [...]; the title of the report; the pinpoint cite, if any; the document symbol; and the date. If a personal author is given along with the institutional author, the author should be included in a parenthetical at the end of the citation.”
          • The titles of UN reports are not rendered in small caps.
    • UN Resolutions
      1. Shortcode; Hereinafter
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • A citation to 2005 Basic Principles is expanded to a full citation during Coding.
        • 2005 Basic Principles
        • Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law, General Assembly Resolution 60/147, 16 December 2005, [hereinafter 2005 Basic Principles], available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		General Assembly Resolution 60/147, 
          		<span class="date">
          			16 December 2005</span></span>, [hereinafter 
          	<span class="alttitle">
          		2005 Basic Principles</span>], available 
          	<a href="http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/remedy.htm" class="external">
          		online.</a> 
          </p>
        • 2005 Basic Principles
    • UN Reports
      1. Report; Institutional Author; Remark; Signal; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • UN Reports do not render the title in small caps.
          • The pincite term “para.” is replaced with ¶ (followed by a space) during Coding.
        • See Report of the Secretary-General, The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies, para. 38, UN Doc. S/2004.616 (August 23, 2004), available at https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/2004%20report.pdf.

          [REMARK] (In 2004, the UN Secretary-General outlined a list of broadly defined goals. They include: retribution (i.e. bringing responsible perpetrators to justice), ending violations and preventing their recurrence, securing justice and dignity for victims, establishing “a record of past events,” promoting national “reconciliation,” “re-establishing the rule of law,” and contributing to the “restoration of peace.”).
        • See Report of the Secretary-General, The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies, ¶ 38, UN Doc. S/2004.616 (Aug. 23, 2004), available online.

          (In 2004, the UN Secretary-General outlined a list of broadly defined goals. They include: retribution (i.e. bringing responsible perpetrators to justice), ending violations and preventing their recurrence, securing justice and dignity for victims, establishing “a record of past events,” promoting national “reconciliation,” “re-establishing the rule of law,” and contributing to the “restoration of peace.”).

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		Report of the Secretary-General</span>, 
          	<span class="title">
          		The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies</span>, ¶ 38, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="United Nations">
          			UN 
          		</abbr>
          		Doc. S/2004.616 (<span class="date">Aug. 23, 2004</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/2004%20report.pdf" class="pdf">
          			online.</a> 
          	</span>
          </p>
          <p class="blockquote">
          	(In 2004, the 
          	<abbr title="United Nations">
          		UN 
          	</abbr>
          	Secretary-General outlined a list of broadly defined goals. They include: retribution (i.e. bringing responsible perpetrators to justice), ending violations and preventing their recurrence, securing justice and dignity for victims, establishing “a record of past events,” promoting national “reconciliation,” “re-establishing the rule of law,” and contributing to the “restoration of peace.”).
          </p>
        • See Report of the Secretary-General, The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies, para. 38, UN Doc. S/2004.616 (August 23, 2004), available at https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/2004%20report.pdf.

          [REMARK] (In 2004, the UN Secretary-General outlined a list of broadly defined goals. They include: retribution (i.e. bringing responsible perpetrators to justice), ending violations and preventing their recurrence, securing justice and dignity for victims, establishing “a record of past events,” promoting national “reconciliation,” “re-establishing the rule of law,” and contributing to the “restoration of peace.”).
      2. Institutional Author; Report; Pincite; Signal; PDF; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • UN Reports do not render the title in small caps.
          • The pincite term “paras.” is replaced with ¶¶ (followed by a space) during Coding.
        • See [REPORT] United Nations Security Council, Report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services, Evaluation of the Methods and Work of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, A/70/873-S/2016/441 at paras. 29–32 (May 12, 2016), available at https://oios.un.org/page/download2/id/26&usg=AFQjCNHu-CeYOCEjojg9NMonxFaxedjFlA [PDF].
        • See United Nations Security Council, Report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services, Evaluation of the Methods and Work of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, A/70/873-S/2016/441 at ¶¶ 29–32 (May 12, 2016), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="signal">
          		See 
          	</span>
          	<span class="author">
          		United Nations Security Council</span>, Report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Evaluation of the Methods and Work of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		A/70/873-S/2016/441 at ¶¶ 29–32 (<span class="date">May 12, 2016</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a class="pdf" href="https://oios.un.org/page/download2/id/26&amp;usg=AFQjCNHu-CeYOCEjojg9NMonxFaxedjFlA">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • See [REPORT] United Nations Security Council, Report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services, Evaluation of the Methods and Work of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, A/70/873-S/2016/441 at paras. 29–32 (May 12, 2016), available at https://oios.un.org/page/download2/id/26&usg=AFQjCNHu-CeYOCEjojg9NMonxFaxedjFlA [PDF].
    • UN Other Documents
  • ICC Forum

    • Generally
    • Issues Generally
      1. ICC Forum Issue Generally; Title; Date
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • Use the initial posting date for cites to issues generally: dates for issues
          • Use the short form of the question converted to headline case: titles for issues
          • Even though the title ends with a question mark, a comma is still appended.
        • How can the Performance of the ICC be Properly Assessed?, ICC Forum (July 10, 2017), available at http://iccforum.com/performance.
        • How can the Performance of the ICC be Properly Assessed?, ICC Forum (Jul. 10, 2017), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="title">
          		How can the Performance of the 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		be Properly Assessed?</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="Human Rights and International Criminal Law Online Forum">
          			<a href="/home">
          				<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          					ICC 
          				</abbr>
          				Forum</a>
          		</abbr>
          		(<span class="date">Jul. 10, 2017</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="/performance">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • How can the Performance of the ICC be Properly Assessed?, ICC Forum (July 10, 2017), available at http://iccforum.com/performance.
    • Comments
      1. Comment by ICC Forum Invited Expert; Pincite
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • URL provided is to his anchor on the main issue page for his comment.
          • As the author is a member of the ICC Forum, his name is wrapped with a link to his profile page during Coding.
          • Pincite to a section or paragraph marker is not preceded by a comma.
        • Cedric Ryngaert, Some Reflections on Securing the Arrest of ICC Fugitives, ICC Forum § 2 (February 13, 2014), available at http://iccforum.com/arrest#Ryngaert.
        • Cedric Ryngaert, Some Reflections on Securing the Arrest of ICC Fugitives, ICC Forum § 2 (Feb. 13, 2014), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/ryngaert">
          			Cedric Ryngaert,</a>
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		Some Reflections on Securing the Arrest of 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		Fugitives</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="Human Rights and International Criminal Law Online Forum">
          			<a href="/home">
          				<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          					ICC 
          				</abbr>
          				Forum</a>
          		</abbr>
          		§ 2 (<span class="date">Feb. 13, 2014</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="/arrest#Ryngaert">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Cedric Ryngaert, Some Reflections on Securing the Arrest of ICC Fugitives, ICC Forum § 2 (February 13, 2014), available at http://iccforum.com/arrest#Ryngaert.
      2. Comment by ICC Forum Member
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • URL provided is to the permalink.
          • As the author is a member of the ICC Forum, his name is wrapped with a link to his profile page during Coding.
        • Al Mariam, Saving the ICC: A Proposal for a Witness Protection Program, ICC Forum (April 6, 2014), available at http://iccforum.com/forum/permalink/91/4167.
        • Al Mariam, Saving the ICC: A Proposal for a Witness Protection Program, ICC Forum (Apr. 6, 2014), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/almariam">
          			Al Mariam,</a>
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		Saving the 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>: A Proposal for a Witness Protection Program</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="Human Rights and International Criminal Law Online Forum">
          			<a href="/home">
          				ICC Forum</a>
          		</abbr>
          		(<span class="date">Apr. 6, 2014</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="/forum/permalink/91/4167">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • Al Mariam, Saving the ICC: A Proposal for a Witness Protection Program, ICC Forum (April 6, 2014), available at http://iccforum.com/forum/permalink/91/4167.
    • Video Lectures
      1. ICC Forum Video Lecture; Pincite to Time
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • As an invited expert of the ICC Forum, the author’s name is wrapped with a link to his profile page during Coding.
        • David Scheffer, Video Lecture, Comment on the Arrest Question: What Steps Can and Should the ICC Take to Secure the Arrest and Surrender of Indictees?, ICC Forum, at 26:36 (February 5, 2013), available at http://iccforum.com/forum/arrest-lecture.
        • David Scheffer, Video Lecture, Comment on the Arrest Question: What Steps Can and Should the ICC Take to Secure the Arrest and Surrender of Indictees?, ICC Forum, at 26:36 (Feb. 5, 2013), available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/scheffer">
          			David Scheffer</a></span>, Video Lecture, 
          	<span class="title">
          		Comment on the Arrest Question: What Steps Can and Should the 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC 
          		</abbr>
          		Take to Secure the Arrest and Surrender of Indictees?</span>, 
          	<span class="citation">
          		<abbr title="Human Rights and International Criminal Law Online Forum">
          			<a href="http://iccforum.com/">
          				ICC Forum,</a>
          		</abbr> 
          		at 26:36 
          		(<span class="date">Feb. 5, 2013</span>)</span>, 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="/forum/arrest-lecture">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • David Scheffer, Video Lecture, Comment on the Arrest Question: What Steps Can and Should the ICC Take to Secure the Arrest and Surrender of Indictees?, ICC Forum, at 26:36 (February 5, 2013), available at http://iccforum.com/forum/arrest-lecture.
    • Articles from “Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court”
      1. Article; Book—Collection; Earlier Version on ICC Forum; Pincite; Date; Coding Marker
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • URL is directly to invited expert’s comment on the ICC Forum.
          • Date of earlier version is the launch date for that issue.
          • As author is an invited expert, his name is linked to his profile page on the ICC Forum during Coding.
          • Pincite to page 202 follows the book title without a preceding comma. Second and subsequent pages would be separated by a hyphen (replaced with an en-dash in Coding) to indicate a range or, in this case, a comma to indicate a single separate page.
          • Generally, there would be a comma prior to “available at”, but when the text that precedes it is describing the URL — “earlier version (October 6, 2011) available at …” — then the comma is omitted.
        • [BOOK] William W. Burke-White, Maximizing the ICC’s Crime Prevention Impact Through Positive Complementarity and Hard-Nosed Diplomacy, in Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court 202, 212 (Richard H. Steinberg ed., 2016), earlier version (October 6, 2011) available at http://iccforum.com/prevention#Burke-White.
        • William W. Burke-White, Maximizing the ICC’s Crime Prevention Impact Through Positive Complementarity and Hard-Nosed Diplomacy, in Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court 202, 212 (Richard H. Steinberg ed., 2016), earlier version (Oct. 6, 2011) available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/burke-white">
          			William W. Burke-White,</a>
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		Maximizing the 
          		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
          			ICC</abbr>’s Crime Prevention Impact Through Positive Complementarity and Hard-Nosed Diplomacy</span>, 
          	<em>
          		in 
          	</em>
          	<span class="citation">
          		<span class="book">
          			Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court 
          		</span>
          		202, 212 (<span class="author"><a href="/users/steinberg">Richard H. Steinberg</a>
          		</span>
          		ed.,
          		<span class="date">
          			2016</span>)</span>, earlier version (<span class="date">Oct. 6, 2011</span>) 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="/prevention#Burke-White">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • [BOOK] William W. Burke-White, Maximizing the ICC’s Crime Prevention Impact Through Positive Complementarity and Hard-Nosed Diplomacy, in Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court 202, 212 (Richard H. Steinberg ed., 2016), earlier version (October 6, 2011) available at http://iccforum.com/prevention#Burke-White.
      2. Article; Book—Collection; Earlier Version on ICC Forum; Multiple Authors; Date
        • Notes
          You Write
          Result
          Code
          • URL is directly to invited experts’ comment on the ICC Forum.
          • Date of earlier version is the launch date of that issue.
          • As authors are invited experts, their names are linked to their profile pages on the ICC Forum during Coding.
          • Generally, there would be a comma prior to “available at”, but when the text that precedes it is describing the URL — “earlier version (March 17, 2013) available at …” — then the comma is omitted.
          • Two authors’ names are separated by an ampersand.
        • M. Cherif Bassiouni & Douglass Hansen, The Inevitable Practice of the Office of the Prosecutor, in Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court (Richard H. Steinberg ed., 2016), earlier version (March 17, 2013) available at http://iccforum.com/africa#Bassiouni.
        • M. Cherif Bassiouni & Douglass Hansen, The Inevitable Practice of the Office of the Prosecutor, in Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court (Richard H. Steinberg ed., 2016), earlier version (Mar. 17, 2013) available online.

        • <p>
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/bassiouni">
          			M. Cherif Bassiouni</a>
          	</span>
          	&amp; 
          	<span class="author">
          		<a href="/users/hansen">
          			Douglass Hansen,</a>
          	</span>
          	<span class="title">
          		The Inevitable Practice of the Office of the Prosecutor</span>, 
          	<em>
          		in 
          	</em>
          	<span class="citation">
          		<span class="book">
          			Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court 
          		</span>
          		(<span class="author"><a href="/users/steinberg">Richard H. Steinberg</a>
          		</span>
          		ed., 
          		<span class="date">
          			2016</span>)</span>, earlier version (<span class="date">Mar. 17, 2013</span>) 
          	<span class="available">
          		available 
          		<a href="/africa#Bassiouni">
          			online.</a>
          	</span>
          </p>
        • M. Cherif Bassiouni & Douglass Hansen, The Inevitable Practice of the Office of the Prosecutor, in Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court (Richard H. Steinberg ed., 2016), earlier version (March 17, 2013) available at http://iccforum.com/africa#Bassiouni.
  • Others

    1. U.S. Supreme Court Case; Pincite; Entities; Foreign Language Term
      • Notes
        You Write
        Result
        Code
        • The website supreme.justia.com/ is recommended, but not required, for U.S. Supreme Court case citations.
        • When PDF format files preserve the original formatting, they are preferred over text pages.
      • Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, et al., 505 U.S. 833, 865–6 (June 29, 1992), available at https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/505/833/case.pdf.
      • Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, et al., 505 U.S. 833, 865–6 (Jun. 29, 1992), available online.

      • <p>
        	<span class="title">
        		<cite>
        			Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania 
        			<dfn title="and others">
        				et al. 
        			</dfn>
        			v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, 
        			<dfn title="and others">
        				et al.</dfn></cite></span>, 
        	<span class="citation">
        		505 U.S. 833, 865–6 (<span class="date">Jun. 29, 1992</span>)</span>, 
        	<span class="available">
        		available 
        		<a href="https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/505/833/case.pdf" class="pdf">
        			online.</a> 
        	</span>
        </p>
      • Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, et al., 505 U.S. 833, 865–6 (June 29, 1992), available at https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/505/833/case.pdf.
    2. Speech; Author; Author’s Title; Speech Location; Archived; Signal
      • Notes
        You Write
        Result
        Code
        • For a speech, the speakers position follows their name.
        • Where the speech was given is sometimes important.
        • This speech had a title; many do not.
        • The recognized signal is italicized during Coding.
        • An archive link was created for this source.
      • See, e.g., Fatou Bensouda, ICC Prosecutor, Remarks at Tenth Plenary Meeting, Discussions on the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Court Proceedings (November 24, 2015), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=otp-stat-24-11-20015-asp, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6rW8KnxVT.
      • See, e.g., Fatou Bensouda, ICC Prosecutor, Remarks at Tenth Plenary Meeting, Discussions on the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Court Proceedings (Nov. 24, 2015), available online, archived.

      • <p>
        	<span class="signal">
        		See, e.g.</span>, 
        	<span class="author">
        		Fatou Bensouda</span>, 
        	<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
        		ICC 
        	</abbr>
        	Prosecutor, Remarks at Tenth Plenary Meeting, 
        	<span class="title">
        		Discussions on the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Court Proceedings 
        	</span>
        	(<span class="date">Nov. 24, 2015</span>), 
        	<span class="available">
        		available 
        		<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=otp-stat-24-11-20015-asp" class="external">
        			online,</a> 
        		<a href="http://www.webcitation.org/6rW8KnxVT" class="external">
        			archived.</a> 
        	</span>
        </p>
      • See, e.g., Fatou Bensouda, ICC Prosecutor, Remarks at Tenth Plenary Meeting, Discussions on the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Court Proceedings (November 24, 2015), available at https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=otp-stat-24-11-20015-asp, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6rW8KnxVT.
    3. Press Release; Institutional Author; Hereinafter; Blockquote; Coding Marker
      • Notes
        You Write
        Result
        Code
        • Omit a preceding comma when hereinafter brackets follow a closing parenthesis.
      • See Press Release, FIDH,  Termination of Ruto and Sang Case at the ICC: Witness Tampering Means Impunity Prevails over Justice Again (May 4, 2016) [hereinafter Termination], available at https://www.fidh.org/en/region/Africa/kenya/termination-of-ruto-and-sang-case-at-the-icc-witness-tampering-means. 

        [BLOCKQUOTE] (“The systematic witness tampering and intimidation experienced in the Kenya cases has denied thousands of victims of the post-election violence the justice they rightfully deserve.”).
      • See Press Release, FIDH, Termination of Ruto and Sang Case at the ICC: Witness Tampering Means Impunity Prevails over Justice Again (May 4, 2016) [hereinafter Termination], available online.

        (“The systematic witness tampering and intimidation experienced in the Kenya cases has denied thousands of victims of the post-election violence the justice they rightfully deserve.”);

      • <p>
        	<span class="signal">
        		See 
        	</span>
        	Press Release, 
        	<span class="author">
        		<abbr title="Fédération Internationale des Droits de l’Homme">
        			<a href="http://www.fidh.org/" class="external">
        				FIDH,</a> 
        		</abbr>
        	</span>
        	<span class="title">
        		Termination of Ruto and Sang Case at the 
        		<abbr title="International Criminal Court">
        			ICC</abbr>: Witness Tampering Means Impunity Prevails over Justice Again 
        	</span>
        	<span class="citation">
        		(<span class="date">May 4, 2016</span>)</span> [hereinafter 
        	<span class="alttitle">
        		Termination</span>], 
        	<span class="available">
        		available 
        		<a href="https://www.fidh.org/en/region/Africa/kenya/termination-of-ruto-and-sang-case-at-the-icc-witness-tampering-means" class="external">
        			online.</a> 
        	</span>
        </p>
        <p class="blockquote">
        	(“The systematic witness tampering and intimidation experienced in the Kenya cases has denied thousands of victims of the post-election violence the justice they rightfully deserve.”); 
        </p>
        
      • See Press Release, FIDH,  Termination of Ruto and Sang Case at the ICC: Witness Tampering Means Impunity Prevails over Justice Again (May 4, 2016) [hereinafter Termination], available at https://www.fidh.org/en/region/Africa/kenya/termination-of-ruto-and-sang-case-at-the-icc-witness-tampering-means. 

        [BLOCKQUOTE] (“The systematic witness tampering and intimidation experienced in the Kenya cases has denied thousands of victims of the post-election violence the justice they rightfully deserve.”).