Comment on the Universality Lecture Question: “Is universal state participation in the ICC system desirable and, if so, how could that be achieved?”
Universal state participation should absolutely remain one of the fundamental long-term goals of the ICC because it would increase the agency of the court. A wider range of influence and authority has the potential to establish the ICC as more widely-recognized and well-respected authority and therefore as a more effective enforcer (greater ability to apprehend criminals who, without universal participation, might avoid arrest by moving to territories of non-state parties) and larger deterrent to future atrocities. In addition, a larger number of state parties might lead to a greater geographical representation of cases and further the cause of international justice as an achievable agenda. State participation can be encouraged in conjunction with political and economic incentives through other international organizations to appeal to the interests of states.
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