About Us

Richard H. Steinberg, J.D., Ph.D.
Managing Editor
Christopher Werby, J.D.
Associate Editors
  1. Kellan Grant
  2. Melissa Hernández
  3. Zhouyiye Huang
  4. Joan Komolafe
  5. Elena Li
  6. Agustín Mogni
  7. Jordan Murphy
  8. Katharina Schapfeld
  9. Freya Schmidt
  10. Micah Sperling
Associate Editors
  1. Leeran Abukasis
  2. Aaron Acosta
  3. Daniel Alborrie
  4. Frankie Allegra
  5. Adrian Almaguer
  6. Alison Angoff
  7. Katie Aragón
  8. Anush Singh Arvind
  9. Daniel Aspinwall
  10. Nicholas Baltaxe
  11. Kiana Banafshe
  12. Eszter Boldis
  13. Maarja Boulos
  14. Isaac Brown
  15. Pankhuri Budhiraja
  16. Chris Bulut
  17. James Burroughs
  18. Emily Calmeyer
  19. Regina Campbell
  20. Tina Carlile
  21. Jordyn Yian Cho
  22. Brian Daley
  23. Collin DeBrabander
  24. Chaya Dembitzer
  25. Olivia Diab
  26. Jenevieve Discar
  27. Scott A. Exner
  28. Paige Farris
  29. Cyprien Fluzin
  30. Erin Nicole French
  31. Monal Gera
  32. Kimia Ghalambor
  33. Lorien Giles
  34. Emily Given
  35. Alexandra Glazer
  36. Hope Glembo
  37. Elio Gonzalez
  38. Paulina Gonzalez
  39. Andrew Grant
  40. David C. Griffith
  41. John Griffith
  42. Maria Nava Gutierrez
  43. Janina Heller
  44. Stephen E. Helmeci
  45. Adam Hoskins
  46. Belinda Hyland
  47. Claudia Iseli
  48. Mahak Jain
  49. Jessica James
  50. Richard Jeng
  51. Jacqueline Kallberg
  52. Melis Kilic
  53. Daniel Kim
  54. Eric Kim
  55. Patrick King
  56. David Kramer
  57. Abishek Kumar
  58. Cecilia Kusterman
  59. Karen Kwok
  60. Mia Lattanzi
  61. David Lee
  62. Joshua Lee
  63. Sharlene Lee
  64. Annette Lin
  65. Chris Lin
  66. Sara Liss
  67. John Litwin
  68. Grace Lo
  69. Dania Lopez
  70. Sean Lowe
  71. Chani Maoz
  72. Scott McDonald
  73. Colleen McElroy
  74. Jill Mierke
  75. Nell G. Moley
  76. Marisa Muma
  77. Anjani Nadadur
  78. Madhavi Narayanan
  79. Brittany Newell
  80. Jessica Peake
  81. Alma Pekmezovic
  82. Faust Petkovich
  83. Sebastian Poulsen
  84. Sandeep Prasanna
  85. Mehrunisa Ranjha
  86. Rory Razi
  87. Eric Renslo
  88. Jake Richardson
  89. Sydney Robles
  90. Katelyn Rowe
  91. Cecilia Rubalcava
  92. Simon Ruhland
  93. Dalia Saffideen
  94. Christopher Sanchez
  95. Morgan Schneer
  96. Eric Sezgen
  97. Benjamin Shea
  98. Margaret Sheerin
  99. Sydney Siwinski
  100. Ahmad Soliman
  101. Alexandra Grace Speed
  102. John Stone
  103. Heaven Strouse
  104. Tanya Sukhija
  105. Ramya Swami
  106. Ashley Sykora
  107. Shirin Tavakoli
  108. Dan Terzian
  109. Morgan V. Thompson
  110. Jonathan Tobin
  111. Enrico Santos Trevisani
  112. Kimberly Turner
  113. Forrest Tym
  114. Jessica Wade
  115. Devin Yaeger
  116. Zishan Yu
  117. Xuchen Zhang
Online Forum Coordinator,
Special Lecture Debates
Diane H. Steinberg, Ph.D.
Design & Operations
  1. Christopher Werby, J.D.
  2. Olga Werby, Ed.D.
Web Work
Pipsqueak Productions, LLC

Introduction to the Forum

This Forum is run by Dr. Richard H. Steinberg of UCLA School of Law (UCLA Law) with the support of the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC OTP).

The purpose of the Forum is to allow members of the legal community, governments, academics, and others to debate complex issues of international criminal law faced by the Office of the Prosecutor in the course of its work at the ICC. Membership and participation in this Forum are open to everyone. We welcome you to express your opinion, and we request a civil debate which directly addresses the legal issue set forth in the current question.

Since its inception in 2002, the ICC has advanced international justice and human rights by embracing new developments in human rights law. As with any emerging body of law, it is important to gather as much insight as possible on highly contested issues. And what better way to share insight than through the Internet?

The Forum will deal with one substantive legal issue at a time in the form of a question—we anticipate addressing five questions a year. The questions are developed jointly by the ICC OTP and UCLA Law. Some of the world’s preeminent legal experts on the issue raised by the questions will be invited to give their opinions. The relevant decisions of the Prosecutor or the Judges of the ICC will also be included. Those opinions, in turn, provide a strong foundation for further online discussion.

We invite every interested person to register and post their own views on the question in a courteous and polite manner. Posts should be on-point. The Forum does not permit hate speech or ad hominem attacks.

Posts which violate the Rules and Guidelines will be promptly removed. Posters who violate the guidelines may be prohibited from further postings. The subject matter that concerns the ICC (crimes against humanity, genocide, gender crimes, and so on) is adult in nature, and accordingly this Forum is not appropriate for children.

This Forum is not an opinion poll. It is about allowing voices to be heard, but not counted. The number of posts for or against a certain point of view is not relevant here. What’s compelling is the argument. While the ICC OTP will be informed by the Forum, the Forum is obviously not intended to direct the OTP’s actions.

You’re free to read the Forum anonymously, but to join the discussion, you must register with your real name and email address. Your email address is not publicly displayed, pursuant to our Privacy Policy Statement. The Forum has an internal messaging system and will serve as an intermediary between member conversations, unless those members choose otherwise. Each member may have an optional biographical profile. Spamming or advertising services is not permitted.

Your first few comments won’t be displayed until approved by our staff. After you’re a trusted member, your posts will no longer require advance approval.

By posting on this Forum, an unrestricted license to edit, publish, and republish the material is granted to the Regents of the University of California without restriction of any kind. Some issues discussed in the Forum may be compiled into book or article format for distribution.

UCLA Law hopes that this Forum will help provide clarity on the legal positions of difficult, novel and complex issues facing the International Criminal Court. Please join us. We look forward to reading your contribution.

Web work on the Forum is by Pipsqueak Productions. If you have feedback or other comments, please send email to info@iccforum.com.

Logo-Promise Institute for Human Rights at UCLA School of Law

The Promise Institute for Human Rights at UCLA School of Law

The Promise Institute for Human Rights at UCLA School of Law is the center of human rights education, research, and advocacy at UCLA and around the region. Founded with a visionary $20 million gift in 2017, The Promise Institute at UCLA Law trains the next generation of human rights lawyers and leaders, generates vital scholarship, and develops programs for on-the-ground assistance to address the most pressing contemporary human rights concerns of our times—from race and migration to the environment and technology, matters which resonate with its location in Los Angeles, and which are reshaping our world.

The Promise Institute brings together faculty with expertise and experience in international human rights, immigration, national and international security, civil rights, constitution writing, the laws of armed conflict, transnational and international criminal justice, environmental law and public interest law, and maintains a focus on broad accountability for human rights violations and international crimes. The Promise Institute supports curricular expansion, bringing leading scholars to campus.

Students engaged with The Promise Institute gain a strong foundation in human rights law and have the opportunity to participate in clinics, experiential programs and other endeavors that enhance their educational experience and prepare them for impactful careers in the field. The Institute supports a diverse program of scholarship and fellowship programs, as well as activities and publications that will serve as fora for international human rights lawyers and scholars from UCLA and beyond.

Richard H. Steinberg

Dr. Richard H. Steinberg, Editor-in-Chief, ICC Forum

Dr. Richard H. Steinberg, Editor-in-Chief ICC Forum

Richard Steinberg is the Jonathan D. Varat Endowed Professor of Law and Professor of Political Science at UCLA, where he writes and teaches in the areas of international law and international relations, with a focus on international economic law, international criminal law, and human rights.

He is a Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a Member of United States Trade Representative’s Trade and Environment Policy Advisory Committee, Chair of the International Trade Law Committee of the American Branch of the International Law Association, Director of Trade Policy Research at the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE) at UC Berkeley, and Editor-in-Chief of the award-winning ICC Forum.

Professor Steinberg has served as Counselor to the American Society of International Law, on the Board of Editors of the American Journal of International Law (2004–2014), and on the Editorial Board of International Organization (2003–2012). He has taught law courses on six continents including at Stanford Law School, the University of California Berkeley (Boalt Hall) School of Law, Sciences Po (Institut d’Etudes Politiques) in France, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and the University of São Paulo in Brazil.

Dr. Steinberg has written over sixty articles and book chapters on international law. Recent books include: The International Criminal Court: Contemporary Challenges and Reform Proposals (Brill/Nijhoff, 2020);Contemporary Issues Facing the International Criminal Court (Brill/Nijhoff, 2016);Assessing the Legacy of the ICTY (Martinus Nijhoff, 2011; BCS translation, ICTY, 2011);International Institutions (co-edited) (SAGE, 2009);International Law and International Relations (co-edited) (Cambridge University Press, 2007); and The Evolution of the Trade Regime: Economics, Law, and Politics of the GATT/WTO (co-authored) (Princeton University Press, 2006; Chinese translation, Peking University Press, 2013).

Prior to arriving at UCLA, Professor Steinberg worked as Assistant General Counsel to the United States Trade Representative in Washington, D.C., and later as an associate with Morrison & Foerster in San Francisco. A graduate of Yale, he holds a J.D. and Ph.D. degree from Stanford, was a Ford Foundation Fellow at Harvard, and a MacArthur Foundation Fellow at Stanford.

Forum Schedule

All debates are open for comment.

  • Israel and Hamas Question

    With regard to the Israel/Hamas conflict that erupted on October 7, 2023, to what extent can the International Criminal Court deter crimes in the region, facilitate a reduction of violence, provide accountability for criminality in the conflict, or advance post-conflict reconciliation between Israelis and the Palestinian people? Twenty-third major question begun on February 22, 2024.

  • Decentralized Accountability Question

    How, and to what extent, should the ICC’s Office of the Prosecutor engage with national, regional, or other authorities or organizations to support accountability for those accused of grave crimes? Twenty-second major question begun on September 13, 2023.

  • The Legal Traditions Question

    To what extent has the ICC under-represented non-Western laws, principles, rules, procedures, practices, or traditions in its legal structure and system? Twenty-first major question begun on July 25, 2022.

  • The Cyberwarfare Question

    To what extent and under what conditions might cyber operations or cyberwarfare constitute crimes specified in the Rome Statute? Twentieth major question begun on March 7, 2022.

  • The Gravity Question

    What is the universe of cases upon which the ICC should focus? What should be the threshold for the gravity that warrants investigation of a situation or prosecution of those most responsible? Nineteenth major question begun on July 1, 2021.

  • The U.S. Sanctions Question

    Is it appropriate or effective for the United States to attempt to influence the actions of the ICC by means of the sanctions set forth in President Trump’s June 2020 Executive Order? Eighteenth major question begun on January 8, 2021.

  • The Cyber Evidence Question

    To what extent can cyber evidence repositories, and digital and open-source evidence, facilitate the work of the OTP, and the ICC more generally? Seventeenth major question begun on June 1, 2020.

  • The Completion Strategy Question

    What might be some elements of an ICC completion strategy for situations under investigation? Sixteenth major question begun on February 24, 2020.

  • The Superior Responsibility Question

    What does the Bemba Appeal Judgment say about superior responsibility under Article 28 of the Rome Statute? Fifteenth major question begun on May 27, 2019.

  • The Anniversary Question

    In the Rome Statute’s third decade, what key reforms could make the international criminal justice project stronger, more efficient, and more effective? Fourteenth major question begun on June 28, 2018.

  • The Aggression Question

    How should the ICC investigate and prosecute the crime of aggression? Thirteenth major question begun on February 12, 2018.

  • The Performance Question

    How can the performance of the ICC be properly assessed? Twelfth major question begun on July 10, 2017.

  • The Withdrawal Question

    How will the withdrawal of some African States from the ICC affect international justice? Eleventh major question begun on November 15, 2016.

  • The Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Question

    How to improve cooperation of first responders to assist ICC investigations of SGBV? Tenth major question begun on April 12, 2016.

  • The Outreach Question

    How can the ICC Improve its Outreach Efforts? Ninth major question begun on February 17, 2015.

  • The Arrest Question

    What More Can Be Done to Secure Arrests? Eighth major question begun on February 13, 2014.

  • The Africa Question

    Is the ICC Targeting Africa Inappropriately? Seventh major question begun on March 17, 2013.

  • The Mass Rape Question

    Do Individual Victims of Mass Rape Have to Testify? Sixth major question begun on June 26, 2012.

  • The Reparations Question

    Reparations for Addressing Mass Atrocities and War Crimes? Fifth major question begun on February 6, 2012.

  • The Prevention Question

    How can the ICC Maximize its Crime Prevention Impact? Fourth major question begun on October 6, 2011.

  • The Libya Question

    Where Should Saif al-Islam Gaddafi be Tried? Special member debate begun on November 21, 2011.

  • The Oversight Question

    What is the Proper Balance Between Oversight and Independence? Third major question begun on May 6, 2011.

  • The Darfur Question

    What Should the ICC Do About the Darfur Situation? Second major question begun on January 26, 2011.

  • The Gaza Jurisdiction Question

    Should the ICC Investigate War Crimes in Gaza? First major question begun on September 1, 2010.

  • The Exit Interview

    Amplify on the issues raised in the video Exit Interview of Luis Moreno-Ocampo. Special feature begun on February 13, 2014.

  • The Universality Lecture

    If Desirable, How Can Universal State Participation Be Achieved? Special lecture and debate begun on March 5, 2013.

  • The Peace Lecture

    To What Extent can the ICC Advance Peace Around the World? Special lecture and debate begun on February 19, 2013.

  • The Victims Lecture

    How can Victims Rights and Representation be Improved at the ICC? Special lecture and debate begun on February 12, 2013.

  • The Arrest Lecture

    How can the ICC Secure the Arrest and Surrender of Indictees? Special lecture and debate begun on February 5, 2013.

  • The Efficiency Lecture

    How Could the ICC Become More Efficient? Special lecture and debate begun on January 29, 2013.

  • The Deterrence Lecture

    Is Deterrence of Mass Atrocities an Attainable Goal of the ICC? Special lecture and debate begun on January 22, 2013.

  • The Security Council Lecture

    Relationship Between the ICC and the UN Security Council? Special lecture and debate begun on January 15, 2013.

  • The Politics Lecture

    Should the Prosecutor Consider or Engage in Politics? Special lecture and debate begun on January 8, 2013.